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Unit 14- Psychological Disorders

Unit 14- Psychological Disorders - Unit 14 Psychological...

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Unit 14: Psychological Disorders PSYHCOLOGICAL DISORDERS (Modules 47-49) Defining Psychological Disorders: Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings and actions. Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is: 1. Deviant 2. Distressful 3. Dysfunctional If behavior poses a risk to oneself or others , it is also considered disordered. Medical Model: When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, the medical model started looked at physical causes of these disorders. 1. Etiology : Causation and development of the disorder 2. Diagnosis : Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another 3. Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital 4. Prognosis : Forecast about the disorder (outlook; chances) Biopsychosocial Perspective: This assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Diathesis Stress Model : The proposal that people are born with a predisposition (or “ diathesis ”) that places them at risk for developing a psychological disorder if exposed to certain extremely stressful life experiences. Classifying Psychological Disorders: American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders. The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (text revision 2000) describes 400 psychological disorders, compared to 60 in the 1950s. Multiaxial Classification: Axis I: Clinical Disorders Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation Axis III : General Medical Conditions (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, etc.) Axis IV : Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V : Global assessment of functioning
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Labeling Psychological Disorders: 1. Critics of the DSM-IV-TR argue that labels can stigmatize individuals 2. Labels can be helpful for health care professionals, communicating with one another and establishing therapy. 3. “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes. The Diagnostic Process: Presenting symptoms Self-reported Behavioral Observations Diagnostic Criteria Matching symptoms to the DSM Differential Diagnosis Distinguishing between and among different diagnoses. Co morbidity: primary diagnosis? **the problem with the DSM is that there is a lot of symptom overlap. ANXIETY DISORDERS (Module 48): Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Symptoms : 1. Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension. Lots of unexplained muscle aches (because of the tension) 2. Autonomic arousal. Sweating, feeling “keyed up”, on edge, heart racing; physiological 3. Unable to identify or avoid the cause of their feelings.
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