Ch2-Machines_Machine_Languages_Digital_Logic

Ch2-Machines_Machine_Languages_Digital_Logic - Computer...

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Unformatted text preview: Computer Architecture Machine, Machine Languages, and Digital Logic February 11, 2012 Veton Kpuska 2 Chapter Outline Classification of Computers and Their Instructions Computer Instruction Sets Informal Description of the Simple RISC Computer, SRC Formal Description of SRC Using register Transfer Notation, RTN Describing Addressing Modes with RTN Register Transfers and Logic Circuits: From Behavior to Hardware February 11, 2012 Veton Kpuska 3 Machine, Machine Languages, and Digital Logic Exploring classes of machines and machine languages from the ISA point of view: The kinds and sizes of registers within the CPU The way main memory is structured The way instructions access their operands, both from registers and from memory February 11, 2012 Veton Kpuska 4 What Are the Components of an ISA? Sometimes known as The Programmers Model of the machine Storage cells General and special purpose registers in the CPU Many general purpose cells of same size in memory Storage associated with I/O devices The machine instruction set The instruction set is the entire repertoire of machine operations Makes use of storage cells, formats, and results of the fetch/execute cycle i.e., register transfers The instruction format Size and meaning of fields within the instruction The nature of the fetch-execute cycle Things that are done before the operation code is known February 11, 2012 Veton Kpuska 5 Classification of Computers and Their Instructions Accumulator Machines have a sharply limited number of data accumulators. Motorola 6800 and Intel 8086 Stack Machines have their CPU registers organized as a least-in-first-out stack. Do not have registers associated with name or number. Intel 8086 and VAX11 have PUSH and POP instructions General Register Machines have a set of numbered registers within the CPU that are used for any purpose. Digital VAX and Motorola PPC601 February 11, 2012 Veton Kpuska 6 Programmers Models of Various Machines (Fig. 2.1 ) We saw in Chap. 1 a variation in number and type of storage cells 2 16 bytes of main memory capacity Fewer than 100 instructions 7 15 A 2 16 1 B IX SP PC 12 general purpose registers More than 300 instructions More than 250 instructions More than 120 instructions 2 32 1 2 52 1 PSW Status R0 PC R11 AP FP SP 31 32 64-bit floating point registers (introduced 1993) (introduced 1981) (introduced 1975) (introduced 1979) 31 63 32 32-bit general purpose registers 31 31 More than 50 32-bit special purpose registers 31 2 52 bytes of main memory capacity M6800 VAX11 PPC601 2 20 1 AX BX CX DX SP BP...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2012 for the course ECE 4551 taught by Professor Johnhadjilogiou during the Fall '09 term at FIT.

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Ch2-Machines_Machine_Languages_Digital_Logic - Computer...

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