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Ch3-Production_and_Classification_of_Speech_Sounds

Ch3-Production_and_Classification_of_Speech_Sounds - Speech...

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Speech Processing Production and Classification of  Speech Sounds
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 2 Introduction u Simplified view of Speech Production (see Figure 3.1 in  the next slide) n Lungs – act as a power supply and provide airflow to the  larynx stage. n Larynx – modulates airflow and provides either: u Periodic puff-like airflow, or u Noisy airflow to vocal tract. n Vocal-tract – gives the modulated airflow its “color”  (spectrally shaping the source) with: u Oral, u Nasal, and u Pharynx cavities.
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 3 Figure 3.1
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 4 Introduction u Sound sources can also be generated by constrictions and boundaries  that are made within the vocal tract itself: n Periodic source, n Noisy source, or n Impulsive airflow source. u Note that speech production mechanism does not generate a perfect  periodic, impulsive, or noisy source. u Three general categories of the source for speech sounds: 1. Periodic 2. Noisy 3. Impulsive n. Illustration of each in the word “shop”: u “sh” – noisy u “o” – periodic u “p” - impulse 
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 5 Example of “Shop” Noise like signal Period Source Impulse Source
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 6 Introduction u Distinguishable speech sounds are determined  n not only by source, but  n also by different vocal tract configurations, n and combination of both. u Speech sound classes are referred to as  phonemes . u Phonemics  is the discipline that studies phoneme realizations (e.g., in a  language). u Each phoneme class provides a certain meaning in a word. u Within a phoneme class there exist many sound variations that provide the  same meaning. The study of these sound variations is called  phonetics . u Phonemes are the basic building blocks of a language: n They are concatenated (more or less), as discrete elements into words, n According to a certain phonemic and grammatical rules.
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Introduction u This chapter will cover: n Description of speech production mechanism n Resulting variety of phonetic sound patterns n How these sounds differ among different speakers.  2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 7
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Anatomy and Physiology of  Speech Production 2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 8
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 9 Anatomy and Physiology of Speech  Production u Anatomy of speech production is shown  in Figure 3.2 u Lungs: n Inhalation and exhalation of air. n Connected through  trachea    (“windpipe”) and  epiglottis  to Vocal  Tract. u ~12-cm-long and ~1.5-2-cm-diameter  pipe.
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