Ch2-Speech_Sounds_of_US_English(1)

Ch2-Speech_Sounds_of - Speech Recognition Speech Sounds of American English Speech Sounds of American English u There are over 40 speech sounds in

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Speech Recognition Speech Sounds of American  English
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 2 Speech Sounds of American English u There are over 40 speech sounds in American English which can be  organized by their basic manner of production   u Vowels glides , and  consonants  differ in degree of constriction  u Sonorant  consonants have no pressure build up at constriction  u Nasal  consonants have no pressure build up at constriction  u Continuant  consonant do not block airflow in oral cavity  Manner Class Number Vowel 18 Fricatives 8 Stops 6 Nasals 3 Semivowels 4 Affricates 2 Aspirant 1
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 3 Phonemes of American English
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Phonetic Alphabets Reference 2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 4
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 5 Vowel Production u No significant constriction in the vocal tract u Usually produced with periodic excitation u Acoustic characteristics depend on the position of the jaw,  tongue, and lips
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 6 Vowels of American English u There are  approximately  18 vowels in American English made up of  monothongs, diphthongs, and reduced vowels (schwa’s) u They are often described by the articulatory features:  High / Low Front / Back Retroflexed Rounded , and  Tense / Lax
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 7 Spectrograms of the Cardinal Vowels
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 8 Vowel Formant Averages u Vowels are often characterized by the lower three formants: n High/Low  is correlated with the first formant, F1 n Front/Back  is correlated with the second formant, F2 n Retroflexion  is marked by a low third formant, F3
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 9 Vowel Durations u Each vowel has a different intrinsic duration u Schwa’s have distinctly shorter durations (50ms) u / I,  ,  ,  Λ Ʊ / are the shortest monothongs u Context can greatly influence vowel duration
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 10 Happy Little Vowel Chart "So inaccurate, yet so useful." R o b ' s
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 11 Fricative Production u Turbulence produced at narrow constriction u Constriction position determines acoustic characteristics u Can be produced with periodic excitation
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 12 Fricatives of American English u
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2012 for the course ECE 5526 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '09 term at FIT.

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Ch2-Speech_Sounds_of - Speech Recognition Speech Sounds of American English Speech Sounds of American English u There are over 40 speech sounds in

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