Ch2-Speech_Sounds_of_US_English

Ch2-Speech_Sounds_of_US_English - Speech Recognition Speech...

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Speech Recognition Speech Sounds of American  English
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Introduction u Speech was created since the inception of the human race. u In contrast writing is at most a few thousand years old. u Speech is available to anyone and everyone learns to speak without  formal instruction and attains a comparable level of skill and fluency. u Speech is the most common and most natural manifestation of  language. u Phonetics, the study of speech, is the bedrock of the scientific study of  language. Henderson in 1877 said that “The form of language is its  sounds”. u “Language is not a cultural artifact that we learn the way we learn to tell  time or how the federal government works. Instead, it is a distinct piece  of  biological  makeup of our brain.” – Steven Pincker “The Languge  Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language” 2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 2
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Introduction u Language is: n a complex,  n specialized skill,  n which develops in the child spontaneously,  n without conscious effort or formal instruction,  n is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic,  n is qualitatively the same in every individual, and n is distinct from more general abilities to process information  or  behave intelligently. u For these reasons some cognitive scientist have described language as  a psychological faculty, a mental organ, a neural system, and a  computational module. u The term “instinct” is preferred to all the above. 2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 3
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 4 Speech Sounds of American English u There are over 40 speech sounds in American English which can be  organized by their basic manner of production   u Vowels glides , and  consonants  differ in degree of constriction  u Sonorant  (nasals, liquids and glides) consonants have no pressure  build up at constriction  u Nasal  consonants have no pressure build up at constriction  u Continuant  consonant do not block airflow in oral cavity  Manner Class Number Vowel 18 Fricatives 8 Stops 6 Nasals 3 Semivowels 4 Affricates 2 Aspirant 1
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2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 5 Phonemes of American English
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Phonetic Alphabets Reference 2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 6
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Phonetic Alphabets Reference 2/13/12 Veton Këpuska 7
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Veton Këpuska SPHYNX ARPA-BET Phone Set Phoneme  Example Translation AA odd AA D AE at AE T AH hut HH AH T AO ought AO T AW cow K AW AY hide HH AY D B be B IY CH cheese CH IY Z D dee D IY DH thee DH IY EH Ed EH D ER hurt HH ER T EY ate EY T F fee F IY G green G R IY N HH he HH IY JH gee JH IY IH it IH T IY eat IY T JH gee JH IY Phoneme  Example Translation K key K IY L lee L IY M me M IY N knee N IY NG ping P IH NG OW oat OW T OY toy T OY P pee P IY R read R IY D S sea S IY SH she SH IY T tea T IY TH theta
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Ch2-Speech_Sounds_of_US_English - Speech Recognition Speech...

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