1 - D R A F T Speech and Language Processing An...

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Unformatted text preview: D R A F T Speech and Language Processing: An introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics, and speech recognition. Daniel Jurafsky & James H. Martin. Copyright c circlecopyrt 2006, All rights reserved. Draft of June 25, 2007. Do not cite without permission. 1 INTRODUCTION Dave Bowman: Open the pod bay doors, HAL. HAL: I’m sorry Dave, I’m afraid I can’t do that. Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, screenplay of 2001: A Space Odyssey This book is about a new interdisciplinary field variously called computer speech and language processing or human language technology or natural language pro- cessing or computational linguistics . The goal of this new field is to get computers to perform useful tasks involving human language, tasks like enabling human-machine communication, improving human-human communication, or simply doing useful pro- cessing of text or speech. One example of a useful such task is a conversational agent . The HAL 9000 com- CONVERSATIONAL AGENT puter in Stanley Kubrick’s film 2001: A Space Odyssey is one of the most recognizable characters in twentieth-century cinema. HAL is an artificial agent capable of such ad- vanced language-processing behavior as speaking and understanding English, and at a crucial moment in the plot, even reading lips. It is now clear that HAL’s creator Arthur C. Clarke was a little optimistic in predicting when an artificial agent such as HAL would be available. But just how far off was he? What would it take to create at least the language-related parts of HAL? We call programs like HAL that converse with hu- mans via natural language conversational agents or dialogue systems . In this text we CONVERSATIONAL AGENTS DIALOGUE SYSTEMS study the various components that make up modern conversational agents, including language input ( automatic speech recognition and natural language understand- ing ) and language output ( natural language generation and speech synthesis ). Let’s turn to another useful language-related task, that of making available to non- English-speaking readers the vast amount of scientific information on the Web in En- glish. Or translating for English speakers the hundreds of millions of Web pages written in other languages like Chinese. The goal of machine translation is to automatically MACHINE TRANSLATION translate a document from one language to another. Machine translation is far from a solved problem; we will cover the algorithms currently used in the field, as well as important component tasks. Many other language processing tasks are also related to the Web. Another such task is Web-based question answering . This is a generalization of simple web search, QUESTION ANSWERING where instead of just typing keywords a user might ask complete questions, ranging from easy to hard, like the following: D R A F T 2 Chapter 1. Introduction • What does “divergent” mean?...
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1 - D R A F T Speech and Language Processing An...

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