Ch2-Words & Transducers - Search and Decoding in...

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Search and Decoding in Speech Recognition Words and Transducers
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 2 Outline
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Introduction 2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 3
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 4 Introduction u From Ch 1. – regular expressions we sow how easy it is to search for a plural of the  woodchuck   ( woodchucks ) . u However searching for plural of  fox fish peccary  or  wild goose  is not as trivial as just tacking on an  s n Main Entry:  fox    Pronunciation: 'f ä ks Function:  noun Inflected Form(s):  plural   fox∙es   also   fox Usage:  often attributive Etymology: Middle English, from Old English; akin to Old High German  fuhs  fox and perhaps to Sanskrit  puccha  tail n Main Entry:  fish    Pronunciation: 'fish Function:  noun Inflected Form(s):  plural   fish   or   fish∙es Usage:  often attributive Etymology: Middle English, from Old English  fisc;  akin to Old High German  fisc  fish, Latin  piscis n Main Entry:  pec∙ca∙ry    Pronunciation: 'pe-k&-rE Function:  noun Inflected Form(s):  plural   -ries Etymology: of Cariban origin; akin to Suriname Carib  paki:ra  peccary :  any of several largely nocturnal gregarious American mammals resembling the related pigs: as  a   :  a grizzled  animal ( Tayassu tajacu ) with an indistinct white collar  b   :  a blackish animal ( Tayassu pecari ) with a whitish  mouth region n Main Entry:  goose    Pronunciation: 'g ü s Function:  noun Inflected Form(s):  plural   geese    /'gEs/ Etymology: Middle English  gos,  from Old English  gOs;  akin to Old High German  gans  goose, Latin  anser,   Greek  chEn
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 5 Introduction u Required knowledge to correctly search for singulars and plurals in English  language: 1. Orthographic rules:  Words ending in –y are pluralized by chaning the –y to –i  and adding an –es. 2. Morphological rules : tell us that  fish  has null plural and that the plural of  goose  is  formed by changing the vowel.  u Morphological parsing : recognizing that a word (like  foxes ) break down  into component morphemes ( fox  and - es ) and building a structured  representation of it. n Parsing   means taking an input and producing some sort of linguistic  structure for it.  n. Parsing can be thought in broad terms producing structures based on: n Morphology, n Syntax n Semantics, n Discourse  Producing a: n String, n Tree, or n Network 
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2/13/12 Veton K ë puska 6 Introduction u Morphological parsing (or stemming) applies to  many affixes other than plurals; n Example: Parsing any English verbs ending in – ing   (e.g., going, talking, congratulating) into its verbal stem  plus the – ing  morpheme.
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