The Network Layer in the Internet

The Network Layer in the Internet - February 13, 2012 Veton...

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Unformatted text preview: February 13, 2012 Veton Kpuska 1 Computer Networks 2 The Network Layer in the Internet February 13, 2012 Veton Kpuska 2 The Network Layer in the Internet At the Network Layer Internet can be viewed as collection of sub- networks or Autonomous Systems ( ASes ). Properties: There is no real structure, Various Network components held together via a number of Backbones. High-bandwidth lines, and Fast Routers Regional Networks are attached to those backbones. University LANs, Company LANs, and Internet Providers are connected to Regional Networks. A sketch of quasi-hierarchical organization of the Internet is depicted in following figure: February 13, 2012 Veton Kpuska 3 The Network Layer in the Internet The Internet is an interconnected collection of many networks February 13, 2012 Veton Kpuska 4 The Network Layer in the Internet Network Layer Protocol is the glue that holds the whole Internet together. This protocol is called IP ( Internet Protocol ). IP: Is designed from the beginning with internetworking in mind. Its job is to provide: A best-effort (i.e., not guaranteed) way to transport datagrams from source to destination. Connectivity in spite the fact these machines can be on the same network or there are other networks in between them. February 13, 2012 Veton Kpuska 5 The Network Layer in the Internet Communication in the Internet: The transport layer takes data streams and breaks them up into datagrams. Datagrams can be up to 64 Kbytes each, but in practice they usually are not more than 1500 bytes (they fit in one Ethernet frame). Each datagram is transmitted through the Internet, possibly being fragmented into smaller units. In the destination machine they are reassembled by the network layer into the original datagram. This datagram is handed over to transport layer. In the previous sketch an example can be depicted where the packet originating at host 1 has to traverse six networks to get to the destination host 2. Note that in practice it takes much more then six. February 13, 2012 Veton Kpuska 6 The IP Protocol Format of datagrams is a starting point to study the network layer in the internet: IP datagram consists of: Header, and Text part. Header: 20-byte fixed part Variable length optional part....
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The Network Layer in the Internet - February 13, 2012 Veton...

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