Chapter 3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life 2011

Chapter 3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life 2011 -...

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Unformatted text preview: hapter 3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Learning Objectives: . To understand the differences between the four major groups of biochemical compounds in cells. . To understand that most biochemical compounds in cells are polymers constructed of basic units called monomers. . To understand that most polymers are formed by chemical reactions called condensation s or dehydration syntheses . Carbon and its Diversity Contributing Factors 1. Carbon has 4 valence electrons and can covalently bond with 4 other atoms. 2. Carbon can bond to itself and form complex straight chains, branching chains, and rings. 3. Carbon can form isomers of several types. Stereoisomers isomers with the same covalent partnerships but differ in spatial arrangements of the functional groups. Stereoisomers (enantiomers) involving Carbon can only occur when the Carbon is an asymmetric Carbon, that is when the Carbon atom is covalently bonded to 4 different atoms. Asymmetric carbons are often referred to as Chiral carbons. Stereoisomers are not superimposable upon each other and, therefore, they are not the same. Stereoisomers are commonly seen in sugars and amino acids. 4. Carbon can bond to many different functional groups. our Major Groups of Biochemical Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates C(H 2 O) 2. Lipids CHO 3. Proteins CHONS 4. Nucleic Acids CHONP Surprisingly, polymers are built from monomers in a similar ay via a type of biochemical reaction called a dehydration synthesis or a condensation reaction. Carbohydrates efinition Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Sugar Alcohols Sugar Acids onosaccharides (Simple Sugars) 1. Possess 3 7 Carbons and are called trioses, tetroses, entoses, hexoses, and heptoses. Sugars typically end in se 2. Trioses and tetroses always exist as linear chains of arbon. Pentoses and hexoses can exist as chains but in aequous solution exist typically as rings. onosaccharides fall into two large classes called aldose and ketose sugars. Below we see an example of both. How are they different? (Notice that both sugars are shown as chains) onosaccharides can exist as stereoisomers or enantiomers. elow are shown the stereoisomers called D and L stereoisomers. ne can distinguish between D and L isomers of the same sugar by examining the OHs on the last two Carbons (5 and 6 in the case of a hexose sugar). D isomers have the terminal two OHs on the same side of the chain while L isomers have the terminal two OHs on opposite sides of the chain. Now here is an important point. Inopposite sides of the chain....
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Chapter 3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life 2011 -...

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