Unit13 - Unit 13 1 U NIT 13 PART A: GLUCONEOGENESIS PART B:...

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Unit 13 1 U NIT 13 P ART A: G LUCONEOGENESIS P ART B: CO 2 F IXATION : T HE P HOTOSYNTHETIC D ARK R EACTIONS P ART C: G LYCOGEN S YNTHESIS AND D EGRADATION The material you have confronted thus far has dealt primarily with degradative (catabolic) processes. In this unit we introduce material from the synthetic (anabolic) realm by focusing your attention on how animals make glucose from noncarbohydrate sources and how plants make glucose from CO 2 (the "dark reactions" of photosynthesis). We also study the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. P ART A: G LUCONEOGENESIS Assignment: enzymes . ..."), 898 - 899. The quizzes on this section will require structures as well as names, so brush up on any you don't remember from Unit 10. 1. Gluconeogenesis a. What is meant by the term gluconeogenesis? Why is this process important in animals? In what tissues does it mainly occur (p. 543)? b. Using Fig. 14-15 (p. 543) as a guide, name three non-carbohydrate precursors of glucose.
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Unit 13 2 c. Why does gluconeogenesis require a pathway different than the reversal of glycolysis (p. 544)? 2. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis are opposing pathways (pp. 544 - 545). a. On Fig. 14-16 (p. 544) and Table 14-2 (p. 545), point out three steps in glycolysis that are essentially irreversible. Note that all the other reactions are reversible. b. The following summarizes the bioenergetics of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Net ATP glucose 2 pyruvate +2 2 pyruvate glucose - 6 Account for the 6 ATPs required for gluconeogenesis. Remember that we are dealing with the conversion of two moles of pyruvate and that, energetically, ATP and GTP are equivalent. c. Which other step in gluconeogenesis can be described as an energy input? 3. Bypass 1: Conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenol pyruvate (Fig. 14-17, p. 545) a. Using structures, write balanced equations for the reactions involved. b. Name the cofactor used by pyruvate carboxylase and describe its function (Fig. 14-18, p. 546 - you do not need to know the structure of biotin!). c. In this series of reactions, pyruvate is first carboxylated to oxaloacetate and then decarboxylated to phosphoenol pyruvate. Why is this series of steps important (p. 546)? d. Use Fig. 14-19 (p. 547) to discuss two alternate pathways from pyruvate to phosphoenol pyruvate.
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Unit 13 3 4. Bypass 2: Conversion of fructose 1,6 bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate Write a balanced equation for the reaction catalyzed by fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase. Name the type of reaction (p. 547).
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course BIOBM 3300 taught by Professor Blankenshi during the Fall '08 term at Cornell.

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Unit13 - Unit 13 1 U NIT 13 PART A: GLUCONEOGENESIS PART B:...

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