Chapter 48 The Digestive System 2011

Chapter 48 The Digestive System 2011 - Chapter 48 The...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 48 The Digestive System Learning Objectives: 1.Why do animals need to eat? 2. Basic Nutrition of humans 3. The Human Digestive Tract- morphology 4. The Human Digestive Tract- physiology 5. Nervous and Endocrine Control of Digestion 6. How are Nutrients Absorbed? nimals Eat For Four Reasons: 1. To gain energy to generate ATP 2. To gain Carbon and other elements to build their bodies. 3. To acquire essential organic compounds that the organism cant synthesize itself. 4. To acquire inorganic elements (ions) to use as electrolytes or for incorporation into organic compounds. asic Nutritional Needs (humans, varies by species) 1. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins for sources of Carbon and to generate ATP energy. 2. Essential amino acids- 9 of the 21 amino acids are essential in that humans cant synthesize them. Plants can!!! 3. Essential Fatty Acids- Many animals, mammals included, cannot synthesize 2 essential fatty acids = Linoleic Acid and Linolenic Acid. 4. Essential Vitamins- These are usually required in small amounts. Plants can synthesize these. Are you feeling a little inferior now? 5. Essential Elements- acquired in the food we eat, but also in the ater we drink. 6. Water and Electrolytes btaining Food- . There is huge variability in how animals obtain food. There are filter feeders, grazers, browsers, predators, parasites, gatherers. . How much time do animals spend obtaining food. My guess is 50% or more. How about for us humans? Less than 10%? . Many of the adaptations that animals possess are related to obtaining and processing food and avoiding becoming food (predation). There are major selective forces operating here. . Lets compare tooth structure variation just within mammals. White tail deer skull African lion skull Do you seen any differences in the skull of white tail deer, a herbivore and an African lion, a top predator? 4. Form and function go together: Herbivores have long, complex digestive systems adapted for processing plant material (cellulose) Carnivores have short, relatively short digestive systems. What type of diet are these teeth adapted for? igestive Tract and Digestion in an Omnivorous ammal - Man ow and Where Summary of Digestion More Detailed Look at Digestion- outh- . Teeth chew food into small particles to increase surface area. Water is added from salivary glands. surface area....
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Chapter 48 The Digestive System 2011 - Chapter 48 The...

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