Chapter 49 The Respiratory System 2011

Chapter 49 The Respiratory System 2011 - Chapter 49 The...

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Chapter 49 The Respiratory System Learning Objectives: 1. Respiration in large and small animals 2. The Concept of Partial Pressure 3. Respiratory Organs and Fick’s Law 4. Diversity of Respiratory Organs 5. Hemoglobin and its role in oxygen transport 6. Transport of Carbon Dioxide
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Chapter 49 The Respiratory System 1. All animals are involved in aerobic cellular respiration. In this process which occurs mainly in the mitochondria, the carbons of organic compounds (food) are oxidized by decarboxylations to yield carbon dioxide. The Hydrogen atoms from organic compounds (food) are accepted by molecular oxygen to form water. 2. All animals need to gather molecular oxygen and expel carbon dioxide in the cellular respiration process. 3. In small, flat organisms (ie flatworms) the surface area/volume ratio is large enough that molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange can occur through the body surface. Simple diffusion is not adequate for respiration unless the source of oxygen is no more than 0.5 mm away from the tissues being oxygenated. 4. That’s a pretty small distance considering how large some organisms are.
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4. In larger animals the surface area of the body is not large enough. Large animals have increased their surface areas to capture/release molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide by evolving gills, lungs, and insect trachea. These are called respiratory organs. 5. In order for molecular oxygen to be acquired and carbon dioxide expired in all of the animal’s tissues, a transport system moves molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body surface and all tissues of the body. This transport system is called the circulatory system . 6. Let’s begin our study of the process of respiration.
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Air and Water as Respiratory Media 1. The atmosphere possesses 21% oxygen and .03% carbon dioxide at any altitude. 2. The percentages of the various gases do not change with altitude. So, why can’t man live permanently above 17,000 feet elevation? Answer- The percentages of the gases do not change but the total amount of gases does. The amount of oxygen molecules changes. Thus to better reflect the amount of oxygen or carbon dioxide at any altitude we speak in terms of partial pressures. 3. Partial pressure of a gas = % of gas in the total gases X total pressure of all gases in mm Hg. at a given altitude. 4. For oxygen, P O2 = .21 X 760 mm Hg = 160 mm Hg (sea level) For CO 2 , P CO2 =.0003 X 760 mm Hg = .228 mm Hg (sea level)
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5. At 29,000 ft. altitude the total pressure is only 250 mm Hg.
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