Chapter 51 Osmoregulation and the Urinary System 2011

Chapter 51 Osmoregulation and the Urinary System 2011 -...

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Unformatted text preview: hapter 51 Osmoreglation and the Urinary ystem Learning Objectives: 1. Guiding principles of osmoregulation 2. Osmoconformers and Osmoregulators 3. Osmoregulatory problems of marine and freshwater fish and sharks 4. Nitrogenous waste disposal 5. Osmoregulation in terrestrial vertebrates hapter 51- Osmoregulation and the Urinary ystem Water and Electrolyte Balance in Animals . The amount of water and electrolytes in animal cells is critical. . Animals obtain water by: 1) absorbing it by osmosis 2) drinking it, 3) eating food, and 4) as a byproduct of cellular respiration. . Animals lose water by: 1) urine, 2) feces, 3) sweating, and 4) respiration . Animals are continually adjusting the amount of water and electrolytes in the body. uiding Principles of Regulation . Ions move across membranes in a special type of diffusion alled dialysis down a concentration gradient. This is passive transport. Or . Ions can be transported across a membrane against a oncentration gradient by an ion pump which requires the xpenditure of ATP energy. . Water moves across membranes by osmosis from a high water low solute) to a low water (high solute) concentration. This can involve special proteins called aquaporins or just the regular paces in the lipid bilayer. This is passive transport. There are no pumps for water!!!!! emembering Some Definitions: ypertonic- ypotonic- sotonic- yperosmotic- ypoosmotic- soosmotic- smolarity- Osmolarity refers to the presence of solutes in a solution which causes water to osmose into a higher osmolarity solution (= lower water concentration) Osmoregulation in Aquatic Environments Aquatic animals are either: Osmoconformers- They conform to the environment in terms of osmolarity. Their bodies are isoosmotic to the environment. They do regulate their electrolytes: the concentration of some electrolytes is different from the environment. Principal examples are marine invertebrates (clams, crabs). The marine environment is very salty just like their tissues. Are there any freshwater osmoconformers? Yes or No? Why? Osmoregulators- These animals regulate their osmolarity and their electrolytes. Freshwater fish live in a hypoosmotic environment, marine fish live in a hyperosmotic environment....
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Chapter 51 Osmoregulation and the Urinary System 2011 -...

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