EvolLec

EvolLec - Evolution and the Fossil Record The Study of...

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Unformatted text preview: Evolution and the Fossil Record The Study of Evolution ¡ Two domains: the present and the past ¡ The present: Biology ± Genetics ± Comparative Anatomy ¡ The past: Paleontology or Paleobiology ± Comparative Anatomy of Fossilized The Study of Evolution ¡ Two domains: the present and the past ¡ The present: Biology ± Genetics ± Comparative Anatomy ¡ The past: Paleontology or Paleobiology ± Comparative Anatomy of Fossilized organisms Natural Selection ¡ Natural selection, a creative force, is one of the prime mechanisms of evolutionary change. (The other mechanism, a destructive force, is mass extinction.) ¡ Charles Darwin, 1859: The Origin o f S p ec i e s by Na t ural S e l ec t ion . Artificial Selection vs. Natural Selection: Dog breeds produced by artificial selection Natural Selection: Key Points ¡ 3 facts lead to a conclusion: ¡ Fact 1. Overproduction of offspring ¡ Fact 2. Variation within populations ¡ Fact 3. Competition for resources ¡ Conclusion: Survival of the fittest Overproduction of offspring ± exponential population growth Charles Darwin in 1837, age 28, after voyage of the Beagle Darwin in 1879, age 70. Near the Natural History Museum, London Sources of Variation ¡ Random mutations of DNA ± >>99.9% are harmful or neutral ± adaptive mutations are rare ¡ Sexual recombination ± new variants created by mixing of genes ± you have 4096 direct ancestors going back 12 generations (2 12 ) The Anatomy of a Gene. Helical strands of DNA contain the blueprints for all forms of life. The DNA molecule contains nitrogenous bases (A,T,C,G) that code for different amino acids, which form proteins. Evidence of Evolution ¡ Homology ¡ Analogous organs or Convergent Evolution (Homoplasy) ¡ Vestigial organs ¡ Adaptive radiations Homology ¡ The recognition of common ancestry...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course GEO 331 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at WVU.

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EvolLec - Evolution and the Fossil Record The Study of...

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