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Test1Questions2011 - 1 Geology 331 Questions for Test 1...

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Geology 331: Questions for Test 1, Fall 2011 All test questions will be taken from the following list, except that additional questions may be asked about diagrams or figures from assigned readings, PPT slides, and class handouts. Any of these questions may also be re-formatted into multiple-choice, matching, and fill-in-the-blank questions. Adequacy of The Fossil Record and Kidwell and Sepkoski, 1999 Draw a typical rarefaction curve of number of specimens (X axis) vs. number of species sampled (Y axis) and label that part of the curve where additional data provides diminishing information. What can be said about the quality of the fossil record at various taxonomic levels? Use rarefaction curves to illustrate your answer. Sketch and properly label the logarithmic decay model for the adequacy of the fossil record. What is the approximate number of described fossil marine animal species by 1976? What is the approximate number of marine animal species alive today? What is the approximate number of marine animal species that may have lived in the geologic past? Round off to the closest million. According to calculations by Kidwell and Sepkoski that were reviewed in class, what percentage of marine animal species with hard parts are probably represented in the fossil record? How representative might this sample size be in describing patterns in the history of life? How can we use spindle diagrams to understand patterns of diversity change in the fossil record of life? You may be asked to explain patterns for various spindle diagrams we reviewed in class, such as compare and contrast spindle diagrams between Bivalves and Trilobites. Be able to draw a simple spindle diagram for diversity changes through time. For example: Families of Corals: O, 3; S, 5; D, 12; C, 8; P, 2 Be able to answer basic questions about partterns of radiation, extinction, and evolutionary replacement on the crinoid diversity plots/graphs shown in class and on the handout. Why do we look at the diversity data using plots of both counts and proportions (percentages)? Principles of Historical Geology & Geologic Time Scale Define the difference between relative and absolute geologic time. Define the principles of superposition, original horizontality, lateral continuity, cross-cutting relationships, and intrusive relationships.
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