EEE463_Homework12_Solution_F07 - Electricity Generation...

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Unformatted text preview: Electricity Generation Scheme Characteristic Renewable Base energy form Conversion efficiency Thermal cycle Grid loading Unit size (MWe) Fraction of U.S. total (2006) Capital costs ($/kW) Fuel costs Storage requirement Coal (scrubbed) Nat. gas Comb. Cyc. no Nuclear Hydro Biomass Geothermal Nuclear (Fission) Chemical Potential Photosynthesis (Chemical) Thermal Solar Thermal Yes Wind Electromagnetic Ocean Tidal Kinetic Photovoltaic Potential 38.6% 31.5% 47.4% 32.8% 90% (modern) 38.3% 10.6% 13% (Solar II) 12% 35% 29% (La Rance) Rankine Brayton (Diesel) Brayton + Rankine Rankine n/a Rankine Rankine Rankine n/a n/a (Betz) n/a Base Peak Intermediate Base Peak (mostly) Intermediate Base Intermed. Intermed. Intermed. Intermed. 600 160 250 1000 500 80 50 100 5 50 240 (La Rance) 49.0% 1.56% 19.9% 19.4% 7.1% 1.37% 0.37% 0.64% — 1,167 388 556 1,744 1,320 1,659 2,100 1,091 2,400* (La Rance) Low High Medium Low n/a Does storage Low Low None needed Environmental impact CO2; SO2, NOX; Ash; Mining Special/unique features U.S. has abundant coal fuel supply; Future is integrated coal gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) * Oil (convent.) CO2; Oil spills Fuel cost is very high, since oil is used to make gasoline CO2; Lowest fuel reserves Easy to burn nat. gas and construct plant; Fuel costs rising; High thermal efficiency 0.01% 2,589 n/a None needed Radioactive waste; Thermal emissions Land use; Aquatic life Carbon neutral Geyser disruption; Gaseous emissions Waste is a political issue Most locations in U.S. already used, but small/micro hydro possible; Quick to start; Capital intensive Fuels have low heating value; Can combust biomass directly or produce liquid or gaseous fuels Low thermal efficiency; Only renewable truly of terrestrial origins 3,981 Energy storage needed Land use Land use Bird kill; Land use; Noise; Aesthetics Intermittent availability Intermittent availability; Expensive; Produces dc (not ac) electricity Unpredictable availability; Close to economical Aquatic life Intermittent availability; Capital intensive The 240-MWe La Rance tidal plant was built at a cost of ~$100 million in mid-1960s dollars, so in today’s dollars is about six times greater at $2,400/kW. EEE463_GenerationSchemeComparisonTable November 21, 2007 K.E. Holbert ...
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