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Experiment_8_Transformer_Equivalent_Circuit

# Experiment_8_Transformer_Equivalent_Circuit - Experiment 8...

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8-1 Experiment 8 Transformer Equivalent Circuit OBJECTIVE To determine the equivalent circuit parameters of a single phase transformer using the open and short circuit tests. DISCUSSION A real transformer has several inductive and resistive characteristics that can affect performance. A non-ideal transformer is shown below in Figure 8-1. Figure 8-1 Non-ideal transformer A typical equivalent circuit is as follows. pri R sec R c R pri X sec X m X Figure 8-2 Typical equivalent circuit of the single phase transformer

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8-2 Several parasitic circuit elements exist in a non-ideal transformer. The resistances R pri and R sec represent the resistance of the copper winding in the primary and secondary coils respectively. A small amount of flux travels through the air outside the magnetic core. The series inductors with reactances X pri and X sec are considered leakage inductances and are a result of leakage flux not linked to the core. The parallel resistance R c represents hysteresis and eddy current losses in the core. The parallel inductance X m is called the magnetizing reactance and accounts for the finite permeability of the magnetic core. In this experiment, the equivalent circuit to be constructed is shown in Figure 8-3. eq R c R eq X m X Figure 8-3 Transformer equivalent circuit Open circuit and short circuit tests can be performed to approximate the parasitic component values of a transformer. The open circuit test entails applying power to the low voltage (secondary) of the transformer while the high voltage (primary) side is open circuit. The open circuit test is for measuring the transformer core components (R c and X m ). The series components can be neglected in the open circuit test.
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Experiment_8_Transformer_Equivalent_Circuit - Experiment 8...

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