Experiment_11_Alternator_Synchronization

Experiment_11_Alternator_Synchronization - Experiment 11...

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11 1 Experiment 11 Alternator Synchronization OBJECTIVE To learn how to synchronize an alternator to the electric power utility system. To observe the effects of improper phase conditions upon the synchronizing process. DISCUSSION The frequency of a large electric power utility system is established by the speed of rotation of many powerful alternators all connected by various tie-lines into the total network. The collective inertia and power of these generators is so great that there is no single load or disturbance which would be large enough to change their speed of rotation. The frequency of an electric system is, therefore, remarkably stable. An alternator can only deliver power to an existing electric power system if it operates at the same frequency as the system. A system whose frequency is 60 Hz cannot receive power from an alternator operating at 60.001 Hz. They must both operate at exactly the same frequency. This is not as difficult to realize as may first appear, because automatic forces come into play when an alternator is connected into an existing system to keep its frequency constant. Synchronization of an alternator with a large utility system, or “infinite buss” as it is called is analogous to meshing a small gear to another of enormous size and power. If the teeth of both gears are property synchronized at the moment of contact, then the meshing will be smooth. But should tooth meet tooth at the critical instant, shock will result with possible damage to the smaller gear. Smooth synchronization of an alternator means first that its frequency must be equal to that of the supply. In addition, the phase sequence (or rotation) must be the same. Returning to our
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Experiment_11_Alternator_Synchronization - Experiment 11...

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