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Pp; 7 – Six Principles of Political Realism by Morgenthau 1) Political realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature For realism, theory consists of ascertaining facts and giving them meaning through reason 2) Concept of interest defined in term of power Assume that statesmen think and act in terms of power Knowledge of the statesman’s motives may give us one among many clues as to what the direction of his foreign policy will be Rational foreign policy is a good foreign policy 3) The key concept of interest defined in terms as power is an objective category which is universally valid, but it does not endow that concept with a meaning that is fixed once and for all Politics is unaffected by circumstances of time and place The content and manner of powers’ use are determined by the political and cultural environment To transform the world would require manipulation of perennial forces that shaped the past, and will shape the future 4) Political Realism is aware of the moral significance of political action, and the tension between moral action and successful political action Universal moral principles cannot be applied to the actions of the states in their abstract universal formulation, but must be filtered through the circumstance of time and place Both individual and state must judge political action by universal moral principles 5) Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe We can judge other nations as we judge our own, and having judged them, we are capable of pursuing policies that respect the interests of both nations 6) The difference between political realism and other schools of though is real and profound Political realist maintains the autonomy of the political sphere, as the economist, the lawyer, etc, maintain theirs o Power vs. wealth vs. law Political realists believe in other views and acknowledge that a man who is only a political man would be a beast In order to understand different facets of human nature, one has to deal with it on its own terms Pp; 15 – A Critique of Morgenthau’s Principles of Political Realism by Tickner
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Morgenthau’s Principles of Political Realism: A Masculine Perspective Morgenthau only has a partial understanding of politics because his assumptions about human nature are partial and masculine Women are socialized into a mode of thinking which is contextual and narrative, rather than formal and abstract, they tend to see issues in contextual terms Morgenthau’s realpolitik prescription is a prescription mostly to avoid the mistakes of WWII rather than timeless applicability o Are they still valid as we move away from this event?
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