Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: The Politics of Cultural Pluralism...

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Chapter 4: The Politics of Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Conflict -beginning of 21 st century 3 rd world suffered from ethnic, racial and religious tensions -led to outbreaks of brutality -where progress in one area, deterioration in another -i.e. 2005, Sudanese gov’t signed peace accord granting south autonomy (self-rule) treaty ended 21 yr. civil war that left 2 million dead after ending conflict gov’t intensified “ethnic cleansing” in West; supported Arab militias (Janjaweed) killed thousands of Muslim Blacks and drove 1 million into refuge -i.e. in Rwanda, Hutus massacred 800 000 Tutsi -i.e. in Yugoslavia, Serbian militias initiated “ethnic cleansing” of Muslim and Croat neighbours -20 th century: religious conflicts (India, Lebanon), tribal animosities (Nigeria, Rwanda), racial prejudices (South Africa) led to violence, civil wars, genocides -wars b/w “peoples” will outnumber wars b/w nation-states -for hundreds of years ethnic minorities victims of violence -level of ethnic protests/rebellions w/in states diminished since 1990s (had grown steadily in previous 50 yrs.) -ethnic internal based conflict increased, decrease in wars b/w nations 2/3 conflicts ethnic based, 80% of major conflicts in 1990s ethnic based -brutal wars in past decade: Bosnia, Serbia, Rwanda, Congo, Ethiopia, Sudan, Lebanon, Indonesia—ethnic component since WWII 20 million died in ethnic conflict -predict increase in ethnic conflict over scarce resources in poor densely populated countries -ethnic conflict also in Western democracies and former communist countries (i.e. riots in L.A., Basque terrorism in Spain, separatists in Quebec, warfare in former Yugoslavia, etc.) -cruel in 3 rd world b/c LDCs more ethnically diverse and political systems lack institutions and experience approx. 275 minorities at risk; over 1 billion people -ethnic/racial/cultural hostilities oppose modernization theory and social psych. theory (social psych. theory supported at individual level but not b/w groups) social psych. theory: as people of different races increase contact better understand common qualities and decrease prejudices -not all ethnic tensions lead to systematic violence common in India, Middle East, Southeast Asia, portions of Africa less common in Latin America and Far East Defining Ethnicity -ethnic identity usually a social construction—“a way that certain groups have come to view themselves as distinct from others over time” -each ethnicity based on common belief of descent, shared experiences and cultural traits these traits unite group and distinguish it from proximate ethnicities-J. E. Brown—“A group of people united by a common error about their ancestry and a common dislike of their neighbors” -in times of crisis politicians create historical myths to give group sense of security -ethnic groups not usually socially homogeneous or politically united divided by class, ideology or religion (i.e. South Koreans= Buddhist, Christian
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: The Politics of Cultural Pluralism...

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