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Handelman Book Notes

Handelman Book Notes - Poli 227 Handelman Book Notes...

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Poli 227 Handelman Book Notes 21/01/2012 10:29:00 Ch 1: Understanding Underdevelopment + underdeveloped countries   developing nations less developed countries (LDCs)- Africa, Asia, Middle East, Caribbean, and  Latin America third world: ^ first world: japan and western industrialized democracies; first countries to  develop advanced industries, economies,a nd liberal democracies second world: bloc of former communist nations that included the soviet union  and eastern Europe third world doesn’t account for varying degrees/differences between countries  in this residual category Third World Commonalities: The Nature of Underdevelopment  political, economic, or social underdevelopment newly industrializing countries (NICs)- south korea, singapore, Taiwan o no longer economically underdeveloped, but still a high vulnerability to  global economic forces and continue to suffer from aspects of political  underdevelopment  o costa rica and botswana are relatively well developed politically and  socially but manifest a number of the problems of economic  underdevelopment  Economic Underdevelopment Poverty- low GDP/capita, high unequal income distribution, poor infrastructure  (communications and transportation), limited use of modern technology, and  low consumption of energy  Economic underdevelopment: widespread scarcity, substantial  unemployment, substandard housing, poor health conditions, and inadequate  nutrition  Developing nations have about 1/6 of gdp/capita on average Widely believed income is more equitably distributed in nomically advanced  nations than in LDCs (i.e the gap b/w rich and poor is greater in third world) o True in some cases but greater gap b/w rich and poor in US than in  Ethiopia, Egypt, and India Though poor in US is much better off than foreign equivalent o Brazil and other LDCs like south Africa and Columbia- enormous  income gaps
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Latin america- richest 20% have about 19.7 times as much  income as lowest 20% Social Underdevelopment Third World poverty tends to correlate with poor social conditions such as  high infant mortality and low literacy rates, which in turn narrow opportunities  for human development in other areas Must improve education systems for LDC modernization Better education   higher labor productivity  More education   mass political participation, greater gov’t accountability to  governed Higher literacy rates= more likely to attain/maintain democratic gov’t HDI- human development index: composite measure of school enrollment, 
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