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The_challenge_of_3rd_world_development - Chapter 1 First...

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Chapter 1 First world countries: Japan and the western industrialized democracies Second world countries: the bloc of the former communist nations that include the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Third world: residual category Third world countries share aspects of political, social , or economic underdevelopment Economic Underdevelopment: -Low GDP per capita -Limited use of modern technology -Low consumption of energy -Widespread poverty -Unemployment -Substandard housing -Poor health -Inadequate nutrition Per capita income and rate of economic growth vary considerably between LDC’s. A country’s standard of living is determined by ins per capita income and on how equally or unequally that income is distributed To measure income in/equality (ratio of richest 20% over poorest 20% Generally, income is more equitable distributed in economically advanced nations than in LDC’s - Factors influencing a country’s income distribution patterns Level of industrializations and economic development: countries moving into the middle and upper middle levels of development generally experience a growing income gap between classes - Historical pattern of land ownership - Government policies regarding land ownership, taxation and welfare programs. Social Underdevelopment: Poverty tends to correlate with poor social conditions (high infant mortality and low literacy rates) which in turn narrow opportunities for human development Importance of improving the educational system: an educated workforce contributes to higher labor productivity, expand mass political participation, and facilitate government
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accountability to the governed. Countries with higher literacy rates are more likely to attain and maintain a democratic government. HDI: human development index, a composite measure of school enrollment, adult literacy, life expectancy and per capita GDP=> considered the best single measure of a nations living standard Although economic development usually improves social indicators, government policy determines how large a share of state resources is invested in education, sanitation, and health care- that is to say, the extent to which economic growth stimulates social development. The 3 rd world enjoyed considerable social development in the last 40-50 years, but still, as an aggregate; the LDC’s continue to lag considerable behind North America, Europe, and Japan. 3 rd world adult literacy rates, life expectancy, and calorie consumption trail those of industrialized nations by about 20 %. Within the developing world, great gaps persist between urban centers and rural areas. Political Underdevelopment: Most western European counties did not did not fully democratize until they were well along the path to industrial development (scholars were often reluctant to criticize the developing world’s numerous authoritarian governments) Political scientist suggest that political development involves the creation of specialized and
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