A.Hobbes - Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679 Of the Naturall...

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Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) “Of the Naturall Condition of Mankind, As Concerning Their Felicity, and Misery” (Chapter xiii of Leviathan ) Background Late 1630’s Conflict between Royalists and Parlimentarians in England. 1640 Hobbes (royalist sympathizer) flees to Paris. 1642 Civil war in England. 1646 Royalists are defeated. 1649 King Charles is beheaded. Oliver Cromwell assumes power. 1660 Restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. Contemporary of Galileo (1632 Two World Systems ) and Descartes (1637 Discourse ) Leviathan is published in 1651. Major theme - The only solution to the problems of disorder that all societies are vulnerable to is an absolute monarch with absolute power. Chapter xiii gives us Hobbes’ views on human nature. Famous quote: In the state of nature, human life is “… solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.” In brief: Nature is BAD. Society is GOOD. I. Hobbes materialism (laid out in other parts of Leviathan ) • The world consists entirely and solely of matter in motion (all substances are corporeal - no noncorporeal “mental” substances for Hobbes). Matter consists solely in extension. • Thought consists of images - the residue of sensations produced by external objects acting on our bodies (pp. ii, 2). • Space is the image of extension; time is the image of motion. • Mental discourse (intellect) is explained by Hobbes in terms of the motion of images. These images obey universal laws of nature. So the equality of mental capacity arises from the universal laws of motion. • Note:
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A.Hobbes - Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679 Of the Naturall...

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