15 Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in

15 Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces...

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Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War. The Hague, 18 October 1907. State parties (35) / State signatories (16) General title: Second Peace Conference of The Hague, 1907. Forum of adoption: International Peace Conference 1907 Entry into force: 26.01.1910 Before the adoption of the present Convention there was controversy as to whether or not undefended ports, towns and buildings might be bombarded by naval forces . There was a difference of opinion as to whether the rule applicable in land warfare prohibiting bombardment of undefended towns (Article 25 of the Hague Regulations of 1899 and 1907) was also applicable to bombardment by naval forces. The Institute of International Law, in 1896, declared that the law relating to bombardment was the same in land and sea warfare. This view, however, was not accepted by the Powers at the Second Hague Peace Conference. Although Article I of the present Convention confirms the principle that undefended ports and towns may not be bombarded, Article 2 allows bombardment by naval forces of military objectives in undefended towns. This new rule eventually became applicable in air warfare, too. Meetings of forum: 15.06.1907 - 18.10.1907, The Hague Date of adoption: 18.10.1907 Depositary: Netherlands Number of articles: 13 Authentic text: French SourceD.Schindler and J.Toman, The Laws of Armed Conflicts, Martinus Nihjoff Publisher, 1988, pp.812-815. Animated by the desire to realize the wish expressed by the first Peace Conference respecting the bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, and villages; Whereas it is expedient that bombardments by naval forces should be subject to rules of general application which would safeguard the rights of the inhabitants and assure the preservation of the more important buildings, by applying as far as Possible to this operation of war the principles of the Regulation of 1899 respecting the laws and customs of land war; Actuated, accordingly, by the desire to serve the interests of humanity and to diminish the severity and disasters of war; Have resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have, for this purpose, appointed the following as their Plenipotentiaries: (Here follow the names of Plenipotentiaries) Who, after depositing their full powers, gound in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions: CHAPTER I: THE BOMBARDMENT OF UNDEFENDED PORTS, TOWNS, VILLAGES, DWELLINGS, OR BUILDINGS Article 1. The bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings is forbidden. A place cannot be bombarded solely because automatic submarine contact mines are anchored off the harbour. 2. Military works, military or naval establishments, depots of arms or war ' matériel, ' workshops or plant which could be utilized for the needs of the hostile fleet or army, and the ships of war in the harbour, are not, however, included in this prohibition. The commander of a naval force may destroy them with artillery, after a summons followed by a reasonable time of waiting, if all other
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15 Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces...

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