Business and Human Rights.Ruggie

Business and Human Rights.Ruggie - Business and Human...

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Business and Human Rights: The Evolving International Agenda Author(s): John Gerard Ruggie Reviewed work(s): Source: TheAmericanJournalofInternationalLaw, Vol. 101, No. 4 (Oct., 2007), pp. 819-840 Published by: American Society of International Law Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40006320 . Accessed: 10/12/2011 15:17 . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. American Society of International Law is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The American Journal of International Law. http://www.jstor.org
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CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS Business and Human Rights: The Evolving International Agenda By John Gerard Ruggie* The state-based system of global governance has struggled for more than a generation to adjust to the expanding reach and growing influence of transnational corporations. The United Nations first attempted to establish binding international rules to govern the activities of trans- nationals in the 1970s.1 That endeavor was initiated by developing countries as part of a broader regulatory program with redistributive aims known as the New International Eco- nomic Order.2 Human rights did not feature in this initiative. The Soviet bloc supported it while most industrialized countries were opposed. Negotiations ground to a halt after more than a decade, though they were not formally abandoned until 1992. "Soft law" approaches enjoyed broader political appeal. In 1976 the Organisation for Eco- nomic Co-operation and Development (OECD) adopted a set of Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, and a year later the International Labour Organization (ILO) adopted a Tripartite Declaration of Principles Concerning Multinational Enterprises. Each was revised in 2000. 3 Both reference the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and other international human rights standards. Also in 2000, the United Nations Global Compact became operational. It is a voluntary ini- tiative engaging companies and civil society, including labor, in promoting UN principles in * Kirkpatrick Professor of International Affairs and Director, Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Gov- ernment, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Affiliated Professor in International Legal Studies, Harvard Law School; United Nations Secretary-General's Special Representative for Business and Human Rights (SRSG). For
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Business and Human Rights.Ruggie - Business and Human...

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