Chp._3 - Criteria o Standards used to help make evaluative...

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1 Chapter 3 Criteria o Standards used to help make evaluative judgments about objects, people, or events o Reference points for making judgments and ascertaining quality o Define the ―goodness‖ of employees and their work o Basic building blocks in I/O psychology What is Job Analysis? (JA) o Systematic assessment of the behaviors required to perform a job o identifies criteria necessary for successful performance in a given job o These criteria becomes the basis for hiring, training, paying, classifying, etc o Thorough JA documents: 1. Tasks 2. Situation 3. Human attributes Job Analysis The Basis for Industrial-Organizational Psychology JA is the Root of I/O Psychology Why Do JA? 1. The Job Analysis provides the foundation for almost everything HR is involved in. Recruiting Training Performance Management Job Classification Job Evaluation Why Do JA? 2. They reduce role conflict and ambiguity and help define standards of performance 3. Mandated by legal requirements—they protect organizations and employees
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2 Legal Requirements o EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) o Uniform Guidelines on Employment Testing Procedures o JOB ANALYSIS IS AN ESSENTIAL ASPECT OF ANY SELECTION DECISION AND OTHER EMPLOYER PRACTICES SHOULD BE EVALUATED BASED UPON JOB ANALYSIS o Organizations are responsible for carrying out these analyses Hierarchy of Terms Job Family : Similar jobs Job : Groups of similar positions Position: Set of tasks performed by single employee Task: Basic units of work Element: smallest unit of work Sources of Job Information for JA o Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) o People who have in-depth knowledge of specific job under analysis, job skills, and abilities o Job Incumbent o Supervisor o Job analyst o Type of information o Qualitative or quantitative Approaches to JA o Purpose should dictate approach o Task/Job Oriented o Describing the various tasks performed on the job o Worker Oriented o Examine broad human behaviors involved in work activities Task-Based Approach o Focuses on what is accomplished o Typical job entails 300-500 tasks o Create task statements Action verb Result Tools used Outcome (―in order to‖) Discrete Ex: ―operates sno-cat in order to smooth out snow rutted by skiers and snowboard riders, and new snow that has fallen‖ Task-Based Approach, cont. o Task statements are accompanied by rating scales: Importance/Criticality Frequency (relative time spent) Difficulty of learning Consequences for error Relationship to overall job performance
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3 Example of Task-Based Approach : Functional Job Analysis o Focuses on what the worker does and how a task is performed What? (performs what actions? to whom or what?) Why? (to produce or achieve what?) How? (using what tools? upon what instructions?) o Worker functions: data, people, things o US Dept. of Labor used FJA to develop
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Chp._3 - Criteria o Standards used to help make evaluative...

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