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GSTRExam1 - 1 GSTR 332 Exam 1 Study Guide The First...

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1 GSTR 332 Exam 1 Study Guide The First Principle of Science There exists an objective reality. When we’re wrong about our views of reality we get hurt. "A Causes B" In order to do science, you have to be able to say “A causes B”. These are the four conditions which must be met before one is justified in saying that something CAUSED something else. 1. A often correlates together with B 2. A comes before B 3. A connects to B (in modern science, connection must be physical) 4. You have to discount C Body lice example The impact of the Jews: Linear History, Monotheism, Revelation The Exodus broke the cyclical cycle of history and began the concept of linear history. (If history is an endless cycle, you can’t say what comes first.) This led to them writing things down—for the first time history was seen as necessary to record. Science tends to make more sense in a Monotheistic culture. It led to the pursuit of one set of laws that one God created for all people. Revelation: The concept that the only things you know about God are what he told you. Revelation-based knowledge slowed down the advance of science some. Truth was known by looking at what God said, and if it contradicted the book it wasn’t true. Scholasticism and Empiricism Scholasticism: the way of learning where one teaches another who teaches another and so forth. It is based on words. (Problem: humans are gullible. It allows info to be passed down, but also misunderstanding and lies) Empiricism: learning based on physical experience. (Problem: we can be tricked and can’t always trust our senses – optical illusions)
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2 The Aristotelian/Ptolemaic view The earth is the center of the cosmos, and celestial objects were attached to circles which rotated around the earth. All physical reality is one giant organism. Different sets of laws of motion and matter. Natural motion was circular. 1. All motion in the heavens is uniform circular motion. 2. The objects in the heavens are made from perfect material, and cannot change their intrinsic properties (e.g., their brightness). 3. The Earth is at the center of the Universe. Cosmos v. Universe The Cosmos view dictated that everything is connected together like a body. However, everything was governed by its own set of laws. The Cosmic view sees physical reality as a more-or-less harmonized collection of different natures. For example, in the Ptolemaic system, there was the "terrestrial realm," with its own laws and natures, and the "celestial realm" in which one could find various other objects, each with its own set of laws and nature. A universe has one set of common set of laws controlling everything, everywhere, at all times. Gravitas and Levitas Gravitas: is behind the natural tendency for things to move towards the center of the cosmos (as they believed the earth was the center of the cosmos). Levitas: is behind the natural tendency for things to move towards the outside of
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GSTRExam1 - 1 GSTR 332 Exam 1 Study Guide The First...

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