ch 10 - Chapter Ten Chemical Equilibrium CHEM 1212K Spring...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Ten Chemical Equilibrium CHEM 1212K Spring 2012 1 Objectives To understand the reversibility of reactions and the concept of dynamic equilibrium. To write and use equilibrium constant expressions. To understand the meaning of the value of equilibrium constants. To use equilibrium constants and reaction quotients to determine the direction a reaction tends to proceed. To understand the thermodynamic origins of equilibrium. To use equilibrium constants to make calculations of equilibrium compositions. 2 Key Ideas Instead of going to completion, reactions proceed until the composition of a reaction mixture corresponds to minimum Gibbs free energy. The composition is described by an equilibrium constant that is characteristic of the reaction. The equilibrium is dynamic and responds to changes in the conditions. 3 Why Do We Need to Know It? The dynamic equilibrium toward which every chemical reaction tends is so important to chemistry that the next four chapters deal with it! We need to know the composition of a reaction mixture at equilibrium because it tells us how much product we can expect. To control yield of a reaction, we need to understand the thermodynamic basis of equilibrium and how the position of equilibrium is affected by temperature and pressure. Response of equilibria to changes in conditions has considerable economic and biological significance: the regulation of equilibrium affects the yields of products in industrial processes, and living cells struggle to avoid sinking into equilibrium. 4 Introduction ____________________ is the stage in a chemical reaction when there is no further tendency for the composition of the reaction mixture to change. 5 The Reversibility of Reactions (10.1) 6 aA + bB cC + dD The in chemical reactions implies that the reactants are entirely converted to products. Some reactions do go to completion but others do not . 7 When the forward and reverse reactions proceed at equal rates , we say that the reaction has achieved chemical equilibrium . The Reversibility of Reactions (10.1) 8 Figure 10.1 The Reversibility of Reactions (10.1) All chemical equilibria are ________________ . Dynamic equilibria respond to changes in temperature, pressure, and amount of reactant/product. 9 The Reversibility of Reactions (10.1) Summary Chemical reactions reach a state of dynamic equilibrium in which the rates of forward and reverse reaction are equal and there is no net change in composition. 10 The Reversibility of Reactions (10.1) Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action (10.2) The equilibrium composition of a given mixture results in the same mathematical relationship regardless of initial concentration....
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course CHEM 1211 taught by Professor Sheppie during the Fall '11 term at Harvard.

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ch 10 - Chapter Ten Chemical Equilibrium CHEM 1212K Spring...

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