ch 11 - Chapter Eleven Acids and Bases CHEM 1212K Spring...

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Chapter Eleven Acids and Bases CHEM 1212K Spring 2012 1
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Objectives To become familiar with the three theories of acids and bases and learn to identify substances as each. To understand proton transfer between water molecules and how it relates to acidity and basicity. The use and understand the pH scale and understand its relationship to the pOH scale. To calculate the pH of strong acids and bases, weak acids and bases, and salt solutions. To use and understand acidity and basicity constants. To predict acid and base strength based on molecular structure and conjugate acid-base pairs. 2
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Key Ideas Bronsted acids are proton donors. Bronsted bases are proton acceptors. The composition of a solution of an acid or base immediately adjusts to satisfy the values of the equilibrium constants for all the proton transfer reactions taking place. 3
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Why Do We Need to Know It? Chapter 10 developed the concepts of chemical equilibria in gaseous systems. This chapter extends those ideas to aqueous systems, which are important throughout chemistry and biology. Equilibria between acids, bases, and water in plant and animal cells are vital for the survival of individual organisms. To sustain human societies and protect our ecosystems, we also need these ideas to understand the acidity of rain, natural waters 4
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Br Ø nsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (11.1) 5 The first theory of acids and bases was developed by Svante Arrhenius .
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6 Br Ø nsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (11.1) The Bronsted-Lowry theory is has less restrictive definitions for acids and bases. A _____________ is a proton donor. A ____________ is a proton acceptor. When ever this chapter refers to an acid or base, it is referring to the Bronsted-Lowry definition.
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A substance can act as an acid only if a base is present to accept its acidic proton. This is called a __________________ . _____________ is the loss of a proton. _____________ is the gain of a proton. 7 Br Ø nsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (11.1) Figure 11.1
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8 H3O+ is the ______________ Protons cannot exist on their own in aqueous solution. They instead attach to a water molecule. 111.7° + From Zumdahl, 6th edition Br Ø nsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (11.1)
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Br Ø nsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (11.1) ___________ are completely deprotonated in solution. The reaction is strongly product favored. HCl(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ___________ are incompletely deprotonated in solution (less than 10%). The reaction is reactant favored. HCN(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + CN-(aq) 9
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Br Ø nsted bases have a lone pair of electrons to which a proton can bond. By accepting the proton, the base become protonated. ___________ are completely protonated in
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ch 11 - Chapter Eleven Acids and Bases CHEM 1212K Spring...

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