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PHYSICS 112 - REVIEW FOR EXAM 1 ELECTRIC CHARGES Electric charges are positive, negative, or zero; they are measured in coulombs (symbol: C). Electric charges are quantized: every object in the universe has a electric charge , where 0, 1, 2, . . . is an integer and 1.6 10 C. Electrons, ;œ „8/ /œ  19 neutrons, and protons have charges 0, respectively. Electrical and magnetic forces act on charged particles. / ß / ß ELECTRIC FORCES Coulomb's law : The electric force beween two particles of electric charge and separated by a distance has magnitude ;; < 12 5œ ‚ 5; ; < e1 ¸¸ # # , where 9 10 N-m /C is a universal constant. 92 2 The forces on two positive or two negative charges is repulsive, directly straight away from each other. The forces between a positive and a negative charge are attractive, directed towards each other. ELECTRIC FIELDS The . electric field I t at a point where the electric force on a small charge (positive or negative) is is given by ;J t t J t ; The electric field has units of N/C.
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