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lecture10 - Hearing(Perception of Sound We use four...

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Hearing. (Perception of Sound) 3) The tone quality of a sound is how we distinguish sounds of the same pitch and loudness (how we perceive the qualities of the waveform) 1) The pitch of a sound is how “high” or “low” we perceive a sound to be (directly related to how we perceive frequency). Combinations of notes that are “pleasing” to the ear have frequencies that are related by a simple whole-number ratio (Pythagoras) 2) The loudness of a sound is how we perceive the amplitude of the sound wave We use four characteristics to describe how we perceive sound: pitch, loudness, tone quality (timbre), duration The unit of sound loudness is the decibel (dB) Quiet: 30 dB; Moderate: 50 dB; Noisy: 70 dB; Very loud: 90 dB; Problems: 120 dB 4) Duration
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Range oh hearing. (some remarkable facts) Human hearing Human vision frequency range ( f ) 20 Hz – 20 kHz 4x10 14 Hz – 7.5x10 14 Hz (7 million different colors) ratio 10 3 (>9 octaves) 7.5/4 (<1 “octave”) intensity range 10 -12 W/m 2 - 1 W/m 2 ratio 10 12 min max f f min max W W
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Structure of the ear Outer ear Inner ear Middle ear Auricle (pinna)
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Structure of the ear Auditory canal (hammer anvil stirrup) Auricle (pinna) Outer ear Middle ear Inner ear
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Outer ear: Collects and channels sound to middle ear Middle ear Transform energy from sound wave into internal vibrations of bone structure then to a compressional wave passed to inner ear Inner ear Transforms compressional wave to nerve impulses Sections of the human ear Outer Ear Ear flap (Pinna): Protects the middle ear from damage
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