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lecture34b

# lecture34b - Physics at the end of XIX Century and Major...

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Physics at the end of XIX Century and Major Discoveries of XX Century Three problems: Michelson-Morley experiment (1897) “Ultraviolet catastrophe” Photoelectric effect Emission and absorption of light Continues spectra Line spectra

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The Special Theory of Relativity Albert Einstein (1905) The fundamental laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. (Galileo Galilei ) Example: (Galileo's ship): A person on a uniformly moving ship has no sense of movement and so a cannon ball dropped from the top of the mast would fall directly to the foot. 1. Galilean principle of relativity (1632) The “special” means that an observer is in an inertial frame of reference. Einstein's two postulates: Principle of relativity Speed of light in vacuum is the same in all inertial frames of reference and is independent of the motion of the source
2. Galilean transformations ' ' ' ' t t z z y y ut x x = = = + = x y x’ y’ ut Frame S moves relative to frame S’ with constant velocity u along the common x - x’ axis . Velocity transformations: z z y y x x v v v v u v v ' ' ' = = + = Acceleration: ' a a = ' F F = Galilean coordinate transformation is consistent with Newtonian mechanics. From this principle follows that potential forces and energy depend only on positions and that signals can be transferred instantaneously i.e. with infinite velocity.

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3. Example: Maxwell equations and different inertial frames of reference a) Two uniformly charged rods in a stationary inertial frame of reference q b) Two uniformly charged rods in a moving inertial frame of reference
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lecture34b - Physics at the end of XIX Century and Major...

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