172Basic Circuit ElementsReadings: 6-6.1.1, 6.2, 6.3-6.3.2Standard TTL Small-Scale Integration:1 chip = 2-8 gatesRequires numerous chips to build interesting circuitsAlternative: Complex chips for standard functionsSingle chip that performs very complex computationsMultiplexer/Decoder/Encoder: Standard routing elements for interconnectionsFPGAs: Programmable for arbitrary functions173Design Example: Basic Telephone SystemPut together a simple telephone systemD/AA/DEarMouthBellStartEMBS
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174Basic Telephone System (cont.)Multiple subscribers, one operator.Operator controls all connectionsEMBSEMBSEMBSEMBSEMBSOperator175Standard Circuit ElementsDevelop implementations of important “Building Blocks”Used in Networks, Computers, Stereos, etc.Multiplexer: Combine N sources onto 1 wireEncoder: Determine which input is activeDecoder: Convert binary to one-of-N wires