Parts+of+Speech+++Grammar - Parts of Speech& Grammar...

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Unformatted text preview: Parts of Speech & Grammar Shane Goodridge Education 179W The Ugly Truth! Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech g p p Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections Prepositions A word used to show the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence is called a preposition preposition. Example: E l The trail through the ravine is closed now. Preposition = through Prepositional Phrase A group of words beginning with a p p g p g g preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun is called a prepositional phrase. Examples: Around the red barn Before breakfast Beside the lake Between you and me For you ***note that the noun in a prepositional phrase may be note modified! Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that connects words or groups of words: Prejudice and ignorance go hand in hand. ...or, as I learned it: The Sentence! A group of words containing: noun, verb & a complete thought thought. A Sentence consists of two parts: the subject and the predicate. d h predicate. di The subject = the part about which something is being said The Predicate = the part which says something about the subject. Examples: Examples: A heavy rain ( ) had spoiled our p y (S) p plans. ( ) (P) In the distance were (P) low-lying black clouds. (S) low- Phrases & Clauses A phrase is a group of related words used as a single part of speech that does not contain a verb & its subject subject. Example: He lives i a b i k h H li in brick house ( h (phrase used as an d adverb telling where he lives) It is the house with green shutters. (phrase shutters. used as an adjective describing house) The Clause A group of words that contains a verb and its subject and is used as a part of a sentence is called a clause clause. Quick: h t' the key difference b t Q i k what's th k diff between a Clause & a phrase???? Answer! A clause has both a verb & a subject subject, whereas a phrase does not! Independent Clause An independent clause makes sense by itself; it expresses a complete thought. thought. Example: Example: Shane is a horrible driver. He does not like to drive. We can combine these two sentences: Shane is a horrible driver and he does not like to driver, drive ***Independent Cl ***I d d t Clauses are generally j i d b ll joined by the conjunctions and, but & or.*** and, or.*** Subordinate Clause The SC by itself is only a fragment of a sentence. It must be connected with an IC to make it meaning complete. k its i l t When Ryan was young, he began writing. young, The SC & conjunctive signals signals. Such conjunctions as after although, as after, although as, if, because, before, if, since, though, unless, until, when, where & while commonly introduce a Subordinate Clause: As the coach had feared, our team was feared, defeated d f t d This is the woman who helped us. us. Phrase Fragments A Phrase is a fragment of a sentence and must never stand alone ne er alone. Participle Phrase: a participle is a word formed Phrase: from a verb and used as an adjective: Present: add -ing to the ending of the verb Past: most often add ed to the verb Example: Example: Jody robbed a beehive. Filled with honey. (phrase fragment made from a past participle) Phrase Fragments The Appositive Phrase: a group of words which explains or identifies the noun or p pronoun it follows. It is set off by commas. y Example: I met Mr. Curtis. The owner of the car. car. (Phrase fragment created from an appositive). I met Mr. Curtis the owner of the car. Mr Curtis, car. Subordinate Clause Fragments Like a phrase a SC does not express a phrase, complete thought. Example: E l The earthquake occurred because of a fault. Which is a break in the crust of the Earth. Earth. The earthquake occurred because of a fault, fault, which is a break in the crust of the Earth. Earth. RunRun-on Sentences Two types: types: 1. One sentence runs into another with no punctuation between them Example: The lights were dimmed the audience quieted down. down. 2. One sentence runs into another with a comma between them. A comma, however, does not have the power to connect two Independent Clauses! Example: The lights dimmed, the audience quieted down. Corrected: The lights dimmed. The audience quieted down. (two simple sentences) Or The lights dimmed, and the audience quieted down (one compound sentence) Commas In a series With interrupters with appositives In di t dd I direct address In parenthetical expressions With nonessential clauses With Introductory clauses and phrases The Comma Splice Commas in a series: a series is a series: succession of three or more words, phrases or clauses having the same grammatical construction. Any questions??? Commas for interrupters: Appositives The interrupter is an extra. In writing we set it off with commas so that the reader can follow the main thought g without getting sidetracked. An appositive is a noun or p pp pronoun often with modifiers that is set after another noun/pronoun to explain it. Angela Winning, a wealthy banker, donated a Porsche Winning, banker, Porsche. A wealthy banker, Angela Winning, donated a Porsche. Winning, ***In the first sentence, banker is the appositive because it comes after Angela Winning and refers to the same person. person In the second sentence , Angela Winning is the appositive because it comes after banker and refers to the same person.*** Commas & Direct Address Words used in direct address are set off by commas. Example: It will hurt only for a minute, Tommy. minute, Listen carefully, Ladies and Gentlemen, to carefully, y Gentlemen, the witnesses testimony. Commas & Parenthetical Expressions 1. My parents, of course, were shocked. 2. 2 The breakfast, for example, cost two breakfast example dollars. Commas & Nonessential Clauses A nonessential clause merely adds a fact to the y sentence that is not necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence. Example: Example: My father, who was born in Dublin, speaks with father, Dublin an Irish accent. Notice th t th N ti that the NEC if extracted fails t alter th t t d f il to lt the meaning of the sentence. However... However... N.E.C. NEC All cars that have faulty brakes should be kept of the street. With the clause omitted: All cars should be kept of the street. Clause i actually an essential clause, and Cl is t ll ti l l d should not be set off with commas! Commas after Introductory Clauses Clauses and phrases Place a comma after an introductory clause or phrase. Although the car was fairly new, it had been badly abused abused. Hearing some rattles, we stopped the car. For the first time in his life, Greg realized the , g value of an education. Introductory Clauses & Phrases When the clause or phrase is short you may omit the comma: Example: Wherever she goes people recognize her. At times the air is very dusty. y y Comma Splice The most common comma error A error. comma splice occurs when two independent clauses are joined with only a comma. Example: Example: It was already June, the tulips were in bloom. bl Semicolon Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses that are similar in thought but not joined by a coordinating conjunction: and, but, or, nor, for, or yet Examples: The house stood empty for years; no one years; would buy it. The river raged through the gorge; her small gorge; tent was swept away in its path. Semicolons & linking adverbs Use a semicolon to join independent clauses connected by linking/conjunctive adverbs such as: accordingly, however, therefore, or thus g y, , , Example: The turtle survived its two story fall; however, it was never the same again. again. Active & Passive Voice Active Voice: if the subject of a sentence Voice: j performs an action the verb is in the active voice Example: She gave a contribution. (The subject she performs the action) Passive Voice: If the subject received the action, Voice: the verb is in the passive voice Example: She was given a contribution. (The subject she g ( j receives the contribution.) More Active V. Passive Active Voice He q questions us He questioned us He will question us e quest o He has questioned us He had questioned us Passive Voice He is questioned q He was questioned He will be quest o ed e questioned He has been questioned He had been questioned Who, Which Who Which, or That? An adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Adjective: Adjective: Selfish people make poor friends friends. Adjective clause: People who are selfish make clause: poor friends friends. Adjective: Adjective: Try to eliminate all useless words. Adjective clause: Try to eliminate all words that clause: are useless. Who, Which Who Which, or That? Use who (or whom) to refer to people, which to refer to things and animals, and that to p p g refer to people, things, or animals. NEVER use which to refer to people! Example: Example E ample: The employer for whom (not which) I work is very fair fair. The tribes who (not which) live in this area are Cree Cree. ...
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