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2+chap+2+a-b3+post - 1/2/2012 Illinois Chapter 2: Phonetics...

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1/2/2012 1 The Sounds of Language, 1 Chapter 2: Phonetics Illinois Section A: introduction to phonetics Sections B1-3: overview of speech production; English consonants (laryngeal states and places of articulation) Introduction to the world of phonetics Section A Phonetics vs. Phonology Phonetics deals with the properties of individual sound segments Phonetics vs. Phonology Phonetics deals with the properties of individual sound segments Phonology deals with systems of sounds, how sounds pattern together, and various alternations in those sounds (Chapter 3). Three subdivisions of phonetics . .. Acoustic phonetics studies the physics of speech sounds by focusing on the physical properties of speech, as sound is transmitted from one individual‟s mouth to another individual‟s ears. Auditory phonetics studies the physiological and the computational processes involved as an individual‟s brain turns the results of the acoustic transmission into meaningful mental representations. Articulatory phonetics studies the physiological mechanisms that are related to the production of speech sounds. Both acoustic and auditory phonetics comprise extremely interesting areas of research; but for reasons of time and space, we consider articulatory phonetics only.
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1/2/2012 2 Facts about speech sounds Only a limited number of consonant and vowel sounds occur in human languages though the numbers vary across languages: A few examples . .. English: 25 consonants, 15 vowels Slave: 43 consonants Cambodian: 30 vowels Samoan: 9 consonants, 5 vowels One way to think about this diversity: There‟s one set of sounds universally - available, and each language selects its own sub-set: Inventories of Speech Sounds (Figure 1) B A C An Overview Speech Production The Speech Production System About Sound All sounds from speech sounds to cars back-firing consist of nothing other than a series of vibrations or pressure changes in the ambient (surrounding) air, between the sound source and the listener. The pressure changes in ambient air are driven by moving air. The Lungs For speech sounds, the moving air comes from our lungs: As we speak, we force air from our lungs into ambient air, causing pressure changes in ambient air. The Pharynx Informally, the throat; not used in the production of sounds of English (but is used in Arabic, Hebrew, and other languages)
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1/2/2012 3 The Larynx Informally, the “voice box” or “Adam‟s apple”; composed of sets (i.e., complexes) of muscles and cartilages which lie horizontally in the throat area As we speak, we constantly move muscles in the larynx to adjust and adapt the flow of air coming from the lungs and to help move the air. The Oral and Nasal Cavities
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2012 for the course ECONOMICS 140 taught by Professor Unknown during the Winter '11 term at UC Irvine.

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2+chap+2+a-b3+post - 1/2/2012 Illinois Chapter 2: Phonetics...

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