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Unformatted text preview: 1/2/2012 Chicago: Sears Tower Chapter 2: Phonetics The Sounds of Language, 2 Review laryngeal states Laryngeal states and places of articulation Review and places of articulation Manner of articulation International Phonetic Alphabet Laryngeal States Two crucial in English: voiceless & voiced Voiceless Vocal folds are taut and wide apart; air passes through unimpeded. Some consonants (but no vowels) in English are voiceless. Voiced Vocal folds are loose and close together; air passing through from lungs causes them to vibrate. Some consonants and all vowels in English are voiced. Examples: voiceless vs. voiced voiced ball, doll, gall face; thin; sue; dasher vase; then; zoo; azure chug jug hug bam; ban; bang uh-oh law; raw (which) young; witch voiceless pall, tall, call Places of Articulation For English, there are eight ... English Places of Articulation bilabial, labio-dental, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal As shown on the next slide ... 1 1/2/2012 Labial (active label) subsumes ... Bilabial: the lower and upper lips touch Coronal (active) subsumes ... Dental: tongue tip contacts bottom of upper Dorsal (active) subsumes ... Palatal: tongue dorsum approaches the each other; pi, buy, my Labio-dental: the lower lip contacts the (front) teeth; thin, then Alveolar: tongue tip approaches or contacts palate; yes Velar: tongue dorsum touches the velum; upper (front) teeth; fat, vat alveolar ridge; tie, dye, sigh, zi(on), nigh, lie, rye Post-alveolar: tongue blade touches or rick, rig, ring approaches palate just behind alveolar ridge; mesher, measure, chaw, jaw Laryngeal subsumes ... Glottal: only the vocal folds are involved; 8 places of articulation plus doubly Now we enlarge the discussion in order to bot'l (British), high articulated consonant, as in witch (and perhaps which); the tongue dorsum approaches the velum and the lips are rounded at the same time. This consonant has a labio-velar place of distinguish, for example, the voiceless alveolars in to and sue and the voiced alveolars in do and zoo. The members of each of these pairs differ in manner of articulation articulation. Consonants of English Manner of Articulation Manner of articulation refers to the The five manners of articulation relevant amount or degree of closure required to produce a given consonant, which ranges from complete closure (as in do), to partial closure (as in zoo), to approximating a closure (as in you). in English are ... stop, fricative, affricate, nasal, and approximant We consider each in turn. 2 1/2/2012 Stop made with complete closure so that no air English Stops Exemplified bilabial alveolar velar glottal pi tie kye uh-oh buy dye guy --- Fricative made with partial closure that leaves the escapes through the mouth; the closure is brief and is followed by a rapid release of the articulators. voiceless voiced airstream obstructed but not completely blocked; thus, the release is slow or delayed. This partial closure creates a narrow groove; air passing through the narrow groove causes turbulence or friction. English Fricatives Exemplified labioalveo- post- glotdental dental lar alveolar tal v-less fie thin sap dasher how voiced vie this zap azure --- Affricate produced as a single sound, but made as a English Affricates Exemplified voiceless chip voiced gyp combination of stop+fricative; requires a complete closure followed by a delayed release. post-alveolar The class of Obstruents The stops, fricatives, and affricates Examples of obstruents manner stop voiceless voiced pad, tad, cad bad, dad, gad fat, theta, vat, that, zat, fricative sat, mission, hat vision affricate chill Jill Oral vs. Nasal Consonants All consonants discussed so far (the stops, together form the class of obstruents, socalled as all are formed with some degree of obstruction Most obstruents (but not all) come in voiceless and voiced pairs. fricatives, and affricates) have been oral consonants meaning that air escapes through the oral chamber. Regardless of their degree of closure, all require one more step: the raising of the velum ... 3 1/2/2012 Making Oral Consonants Producing an oral consonant regardless of laryngeal state or place of articulation requires raising the velum at the same time. Making Nasal Consonants Requires lowering the velum. This allows air to escape through the nostrils, even though theres a complete closure within the oral tract. Oral vs. Nasal Compared Oral: raise velum Nasal: lower velum Nasal consonants are produced by lowering the velum so English Nasals Exemplified bilabial bam alveolar ban velar bang Ive used the terms oral stop and nasal that air passes through the nasal rather than the oral cavity. But the nasals are also stops, as they also require a simultaneous complete oral closure voiced stop. Linguists like to use shorter terms whenever possible, so its customary to use ... oral stop stop (entails oral) nasal stop nasal (entails stop) Approximant made with partial closure within oral Two Liquids in English Lateral: raise the center of the tongue to English Liquids Exemplified voiced; alveolar lie rye lateral rhotic tract; air then passes through the oral tract but with no turbulence at all (the partial closure is fairly large). The approximants are split into two smaller sub-classes, the liquids and the glides. create an obstruction in the center of the oral tract, while lowering the sides of the tongue; release air over one side (or both sides) of the tongue, rather than along the center of the tongue. Rhotic: named after Greek <> ,,rho; it (and all other consonants of English) has a central release of air. 4 1/2/2012 Glides the second sub-class of the approximants They are made with a partial closure English Glides Exemplified palatal Yale labio-velar wail whale The class of Sonorants The nasals and the approximants (liquids within the vocal tract but articulated very rapidly and never result in any turbulence or friction. voiced (voiceless) and glides) make up the class of sonorants. The sonorants have more "acoustic energy" than do the obstruents and they are generally voiced. Examples of sonorants manner voiceless voiced nasal ram, ran, rang approximant: lip (lateral) liquid rip (rhotic) yet glide whet wet Recap Consonants can be uniquely defined by We need a neutral system of symbols to combination of three features: voicing status, place of articulation, and manner of articulation. Very soon, you need to master the two laryngeal states, the eight places of articulation, and the five manners of articulation used in English. capture individual speech sounds a system that will guarantee us a one-toone correspondence between sound and symbol. The English alphabet is not sufficient for our purposes here. For one thing, English does not contain all the sounds which occur in human languages. More importantly, The English alphabet lacks a one-to-one Fortunately, A system which guarantees us a one-to- The International Phonetic Alphabet (aka the IPA) correspendence between sound and symbol. Consider: cat vs. city kit vs. cat gal vs. gel shun vs. nation vs. sugar tough vs. though vs. through one correspondence between sound and symbol has already been developed ... 5 1/2/2012 IPA Symbols: Stops Once you learn the IPA, you can "read" Some of the IPA symbols will appear Mandarin, Russian, Arabic, Thai, and languages that have no written form! The IPA chart of symbols for the sounds of all the worlds languages is given on page 36. For now, well focus only on English. familiar to you, as some are also used as letters of the English alphabet. But never forget that IPA symbols come with a guarantee: They represent a 1-to-1 correspondence between sound and symbol. place IPA bilabial [ p b ] alveolar [ t d ] velar [k] glottal as in ... pip, bib tat, dad kick, gig uh-oh, botl (glottal stop) IPA Symbols: Fricatives place labio-dental IPA as in ... [ f v ] fife, valve theta, bath; dental eth, bathe [ s z ] sits, zags alveolar post-alveolar [ ] mission, vision [ h ] hello glottal IPA Symbols: Affricates place IPA as in ... post-alveolar [ t d ] church, judge IPA Symbols: Nasals place bilabial alveolar velar IPA [m] [n] as in ... mom none king (engma) IPA Symbols: Approximants manner place alveolar liquid alveolar glide palatal lab-velar IPA as in ... lull (lateral) We combine all these IPA symbols into a IPA Chart, English consonants single consonant chart for English, as follows. The first 3 rows are symbols for the obstruents, the last 3 are symbols for the sonorants; this is a convention that most linguists adhere to. bilabial [l] [ ] roar (rhotic) [ j ] yoyo [ w w ] where; wear stop fricative affricate nasal liquid glide p b labiopostpaldental dental alveolar alveolar atal fv m (w w) td sz t d n l, k h velar glottal j w w 6 1/2/2012 The logic of consonant charts columns: denote place of articulation We can also develop a consonant chart in English Cs; active articulator Labial lower lip Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal (from front to back) rows: denote manner of articulation (3 obstruents; then 3 sonorants) cells: when pairs of consonants occur in the same cell, the one on the left is voiceless terms of active articulators; result is fewer places of articulation. As noted before, such charts are used more often in Phonology than in Phonetics tongue front tongue back vocal folds stop fricative affricate nasal liquid glide p b f v m (w w) td sz t d n l, k h j w w Recap Consonants: uniquely described based on Practice Consider the following sets of words Which end in a voiceless C? talked jabbered five fife beds bets three features: (1) voicing status; (2) place of articulation; and (3) manner of articulation. IPA symbols: 1-1 correspondence between sound and symbol. Consonant charts have built-in logic and answer the questions posed. end in a voiceless C? talked jabbered five fife beds bets yes end in a voiceless C? talked jabbered five fife beds bets yes no end in a voiceless C? talked jabbered five fife beds bets yes no no 7 1/2/2012 end in a voiceless C? talked jabbered five fife beds bets yes no no yes end in a voiceless C? talked jabbered five fife beds bets yes no no yes no end in a voiceless C? talked jabbered five fife beds bets yes no no yes no yes Which begin with a fricative? race bus tough through hate begin with a fricative? race bus tough through hate no begin with a fricative? race bus tough through hate no no begin with a fricative? race bus tough through hate no no no begin with a fricative? race bus tough through hate no no no yes begin with a fricative? race bus tough through hate no no no yes yes 8 1/2/2012 Which begin with an approximant? we you lone one run yell begin with an approximant? we you lone one run yell yes begin with an approximant? we you lone one run yell yes yes begin with an approximant? we you lone one run yell yes yes yes begin with an approximant? we you lone one run yell yes yes yes yes begin with an approximant? we you lone one run yell yes yes yes yes yes begin with an approximant? we you lone one run yell yes yes yes yes yes yes Which end with an affricate? much ooze tough push fudge end with an affricate? much ooze tough push fudge yes 9 1/2/2012 end with an affricate? much ooze tough push fudge yes no end with an affricate? much ooze tough push fudge yes no no end with an affricate? much ooze tough push fudge yes no no no end with an affricate? much ooze tough push fudge yes no no no yes Which begin with a velar? know got cot city gnat gem begin with a velar? know got cot city gnat gem no begin with a velar? know got cot city gnat gem no yes begin with a velar? know got cot city gnat gem no yes yes begin with a velar? know got cot city gnat gem no yes yes no 10 1/2/2012 begin with a velar? know got cot city gnat gem no yes yes no no begin with a velar? know got cot city gnat gem no yes yes no no no Which end with a post-alveolar? lush cough lunge choose huge end with a post-alveolar? lush yes cough lunge choose huge end with a post-alveolar? lush yes cough no lunge choose huge end with a post-alveolar? lush yes cough no lunge yes choose huge end with a post-alveolar? lush cough lunge choose huge yes no yes no end with a post-alveolar? lush cough lunge choose huge yes no yes no yes Provide the IPA symbol for ... voiceless bilabial stop: voiced post-alveolar fricative: voiced alveolar rhotic liquid: 11 1/2/2012 voiceless bilabial stop: p voiced post-alveolar fricative: voiced alveolar rhotic liquid: voiceless bilabial stop: p voiced post-alveolar fricative: voiced alveolar rhotic liquid: voiceless bilabial stop: p voiced post-alveolar fricative: voiced alveolar rhotic liquid: Define IPA symbols in terms of... voicing status, place of articulation, Define IPA symbols in terms of... voicing status, place of articulation, Define IPA symbols in terms of... voicing status, place of articulation, and manner of articulation: : : : and manner of articulation: : voiced velar stop : : and manner of articulation: : voiced velar stop : voiceless dental fricative : Define IPA symbols in terms of... voicing status, place of articulation, Very soon ... You should be able to list the three Be sure to play with the practice exercises and manner of articulation: : voiced velar stop : voiceless dental fricative : voiced velar nasal (stop) features of an English consonant given an IPA symbol. And you should be able to produce an IPA symbol for a given set of consonant features. and to ask questions when youre unsure. 12 1/2/2012 Syllabic Consonants Examples: Syllabic Consonants funnel bird button rhythm funn[ l ] b[ ]d butt[ n ] rhyth[ m ] Two interesting phenomena Many English speakers allow certain consonants to function like a vowel by serving as the head of a syllable, with no discernible vowel produced. Only the liquids and two of the nasals are allowed to occur as syllabic consonants (note the diacritic): Aspiration At some times, English voiceless stops are Only those voiceless stops which occur at Aspirated Voiceless Stops the beginning of stressed syllables are allowed to be aspirated. To denote an aspirated consonant, we add a superscript [ h ]: produced with aspiration. Informally, aspiration is a noticeable puff of air that exits from the oral cavity. Technically, aspiration results from the brief delay in voicing between the release of a voiceless stop and the onset of voicing on the immediately following vowel. [p]ill s[p]ill [p]aper [t]ill s[t]ill [t]otal [k]ill s[k]ill [k]ookie *pa[p]er *to[t]al *coo[k]ie We discuss syllabic consonants and aspiration further in Chapter 3. Our next lecture focuses on the vowels of English and their IPA symbols, so be sure to do the reading in advance. 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2012 for the course ECONOMICS 140 taught by Professor Unknown during the Winter '11 term at UC Irvine.

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