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ViralDis121_OLS - Viral Pathogens of Humans HIV/AIDS Top 4...

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Viral Pathogens of Humans HIV Infection and AIDS What is HIV? 1. HIV is a retrovirus : viral genetic material is placed into DNA of infected cells where it remains forever (Makes a true cure unlikely) 2. HIV evades the immune system: Immune system cannot recognize the viral DNA within infected cells (looks like any other DNA) High mutation rate HIV: Frequent changes in viral surface molecules, confusing to the immune system 3. HIV damages the immune system: Infects and then destroys cells critical to immune system function: Helper (CD4) T cells and macrophages 4. HIV is transmitted via sexual contact (having another STI increases risk), blood, or mother to infant (across placenta, during birth or nursing) What is AIDS ? 1. Disease caused by HIV (can be HIV (+) but not have AIDS) 2. Damaged immune system cannot respond to pathogens so normally harmless microbes become pathogenic (opportunistic) in AIDS patients 3. AIDS is diagnosed when a HIV (+) person has Helper T (CD4) cell count <200 cells/ μ l, CD4 cells fewer than 14% of all lymphocytes, and/or certain opportunistic infections 4. Approx. 90% of AIDS deaths are from opportunistic infections 5. The other 10% occur when HIV infects the brain AIDS dementia Death Prevention: 1. Behavioral change: Condoms, sterile needles 2. Anti-HIV drugs: Reduce mother-baby transmission and prevent infection of health care workers accidentally exposed 3. Vaccine? Rapid mutation rate of HIV is making vaccine development difficult 1
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Treatment 1. 25 – 30 FDA approved anti-HIV drugs
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ViralDis121_OLS - Viral Pathogens of Humans HIV/AIDS Top 4...

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