Exam _3 study guid

Exam _3 study guid - MBI 121 Test 3 outline 1) Cell...

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MBI 121 – Test 3 outline 1) Cell metabolism - Metabolism – all chemical reactions that occur in a cell - Catabolic (Digestion) Reactions – Complex molecules broken down and ATP is generated - Anabolic (Biosynthetic) Reactions – Simple molecules joined together to form complex molecules (ATP provides energy) - Metabolic Pathway – Manageable use of energy and produces molecules for use in other pathways - Enzymes – proteins that speed up chemical reaction, required for metabolism, not used up by reactions they speed up, specific - Cellular energy – ATP, stored in bonds b/w 3 phosphate groups, they capture energy while cells break down molecules (ADP + P = ATP), stored energy is made available - Cellular Respiration – carbohydrates broken down – energy is released to produce ATP, begins with glycosis (pathway) - Glycosis – Important products of processing 1 glucose by glycosis: o 2 pyruvic acid o 2 ATP o 2 NADH Aerobic Respiration (after glycosis w/ oxygen) – pyruvic acid can be broken down to produce ATP – takes place at cell membrane in bacteria in mitochondria of euk. Preparatory Step and Kreb’s Cycle - Important products of processing 2 pyruvic acid (preparory + Kreb’s): o 6 CO 2 o 2 ATP o 8 NADH o 2 FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis - Electrons are stripped off NADH and FADH 2 – passed along a series of molecules cytochromes – electron transport chain - As the cytochromes pass electrons there is a proton buildup outside the cell membrane, proton flow generates ATP: o Protons from each NADH – 3 ATP o Protons from each FADH 2 2 ATP - Important products of processing 10 NADH and 2 FADH 2 : o 34 ATP o 10 NAD o 2 FAD - o Glycosis – 2 ATP o Preparatory step and Kreb’s cycle – 2 ATP o Electron transport, chemiosmosis – 34 ATP TOTAL – 38 ATP
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Fermentation (glycosis w/out oxygen) – Bacteria that are anaerobes will conduct anaerobic respiration - Begins w/ pyruvic acid formed from glycosis – Important products of processing 2 pyruvic acid molecules through fermentation by yeast: o 2 ethanol (carbons) o 2 CO 2 o 2 NAD (can be re-used for glycosis) - Important products of processing 2 pyruvic acid molecules through fermentation by Streptococcus bacteria: o 2 lactic acid (3 carbons) o 2 NAD (can be re-used for glycosis) - Total ATP gained from 1 glucose molecule by glycosis and fermentation: o Glycosis – 2 ATP o Fermentation – 0 ATP TOTAL – 2 ATP Anaerobic Respiration (involves an inorganic molecule instead of O 2 )– electrons transport chain: electrons are passed to molecules like nitrate, sulfate, or carbon dioxide - Grand total of ATP gained from 1 glucose molecule via glycosis and anaerobic respiration: o Glycosis – 2 ATP o Anaerobic respiration – 2 - 34 ATP TOTAL – 4 -36 ATP o Because the ATP varies so much, anaerobic respiration is usually much slower than aerobic respiration Anabolism (Biosynthesis) – most ATP made in catabolism is used in production of new
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course MBI 121 taught by Professor Balish during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.

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Exam _3 study guid - MBI 121 Test 3 outline 1) Cell...

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