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lecture notes-enzyme--1-common features

lecture notes-enzyme--1-common features - Outline of...

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Outline of Enzymes Introduction - Features of enzyme catalysis Enzyme kinetics - Models for enzyme kinetics - Effect of pH and Temperature Immobilized Enzyme System - Method of immobilization - Diffusional limitations Medical and Industrial Utilization of Enzymes .
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What is an Enzyme? An enzyme is a protein molecule that is a biological catalyst that catalyzes chemical reactions.
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Enzyme Nomenclature Enzyme is named by adding the suffix ase - to the end of the substrate that is to be converted to the desired product. e.g. urease that changes urea into ammonium carbonate. protease that converts protein or polypeptides to smaller molecules such as amino acids. - to the reaction catalyzed . e.g. phosphoglucose isomerase that converts glucose-6- phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. Alcohol dehydrogenase that catalyzes the removal of hydrogen from alcohol.
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Enzyme Classification International Classification of Enzymes by the International Classification Commission in 1864. Enzymes are substrate specific and are classified according to the reaction they catalyze. Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, Academic Press, San Diego, California, ISBN 0-12-227164-5. http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/
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Enzymes can be classified into six main classes: - Oxidoreductases: catalyze the oxidation and reduction e.g. CH 3 CH 2 OH → CH 3 CHO+H + - Transferases: catalyze the transfer of a functional group (e.g. a methyl or phosphate group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). A– X + B → A + B– X - Hydrolases:catalyze the hydrolysis of a chemical bond. A–B + H 2 O → A–OH + B–H, e.g. peptide bond Enzyme Classification
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- Lyases: catalyze the breaking of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure e.g. CH 3 CO CO -OH → CH 3 CO CHO (dehydratase) - Isomerases: catalyze the interconversion of isomers. e.g.phosphoglucose isomerase that converts glucose-6- phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. - Ligases: catalyze the joining of two molecules by forming a new chemical bond, with accompanying hydrolysis of ATP or other similar molecules ATP + L-tyrosine + tRNATyr = AMP + diphosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNATyr Enzyme Classification
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Enzymes Enzymes have high molecule weight (15,000< mw< several million Daltons).
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