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Unformatted text preview: Appendix APPENDIX CAHSEE Mathematics Vocabulary and Answer Key CAHSEE MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY Absolute value is the distance of a number from zero on the number line. The distance is always positive or equal to zero. The symbol for absolute value consists of two vertical bars | | with a numerical value in between. -5 0 5 5 to 0 is 5 units and from 5 to Example: | 5 | and | 5 | are both 5 because the distance from 0 is 5 units. Spanish words with the same meaning as absolute value: valor absoluto Area is the measurement of a surface, expressed in square units. The surface of your desktop has area; so does the state of California. The area of the desktop can be given in square inches or square feet; the area of the state of California is approximately 158,868 square miles. The areas of some shapes can be found by measuring lengths and using a formula. Below are the shapes and area formulas you'll need to know for the CAHSEE. Triangle Rectangle height width length Area length width Area base 1 2 of base height Spanish word with the same meaning as area: rea 111 APPENDIX: CAHSEE MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY AND ANSWER KEY Appendix Bar graph refers to a way of displaying data using horizontal or vertical bars. The bars represent quantities (i.e., the longer the bar, the greater the quantity). hot cereal Breakfast Item eggs cold cereal 0 5 number of students What Mrs. Garcia's students had for breakfast 10 In Mrs. Garcia's class, five more students had cold cereal than had eggs for breakfast. Spanish words with the same meaning as bar graph: grfica de barras A circle is a plane figure consisting of all points at a given distance (the radius) from a single point (the center). This diagram shows some of the vocabulary words used with the circle. fe cum cir re n c e eter diam rad ius A diameter is a line segment that joins two points on the circle and passes through the center. 112 Appendix: CAHSEE Mathematics Vocabulary Appendix A radius is a line segment that joins the center of a circle with a point on the circle. For any circle, the length of a radius is always half the length of a diameter. The circumference of a circle is the length all the way around a circle. For every circle, the ratio of the length around (circumference) to the length across (diameter) is a little more than three. The exact value of this ratio, 3.14159 . . . , is called pi, and is usually written as the Greek alphabet character . The formula for the circumference of a circle is C = d where d is the diameter. Also, because the diameter is twice the length of a radius, C = d = 2r Spanish word that has the same meaning as circle: crculo Compound interest: When you have a savings account, the bank pays you for the use of your money. This payment is called interest. When the term compound interest is used, it means that the interest is calculated by finding the product of the original amount of money, the interest rate, and the time the money is in the bank before more interest is added to the previous amount of money in the bank. For example, suppose you put $500 in a bank that pays 5% interest per year for 2 years that is compounded. If you make no additional deposits or withdrawals, the interest for the first year is calculated by $500 i 0.05 i 1 = $25. When you add the $25 to your original amount, you now have $525 in the bank. As before, if you do not make any additional deposits or withdrawals, the interest for the second year will be calculated based on the amount of money in the bank after the first year, $525 i 0.05 i 1 = $26.25. When you add the $26.25 to the $525 in the bank, you now have $551.25. Spanish words with the same meaning as compound interest: inters compuesto Congruent: Two shapes are congruent if they can be placed one on top of the other and all points match. This means that all matching lengths and all matching angles are the same size. Spanish word with the same meaning as congruent: congruente 113 APPENDIX: CAHSEE MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY AND ANSWER KEY Appendix Correlation is a way of measuring how closely related two sets of paired data are to one another. The correlation may be positive, negative, or none--that is, there may be no correlation between two data sets. One way of seeing correlation is to plot the data in a scatterplot and look for a pattern. grade point average Years until age 21 height age Positive correlation age No correlation age Negative correlation There is a positive correlation of student height to student age; the scatterplot shows that for this group, as the students' ages increase, their heights also increase. Between student ages and student grades there appears to be no correlation; the points have no apparent pattern. There is a negative correlation between the students' ages now and the number of years until they are 21: the older they are, the fewer the number of years until they are 21. Spanish word with the same meaning as correlation: correlacin Decreased by means to make a quantity smaller by a certain number. If Marco weighs 150 pounds and he decreases his weight by 10 pounds, then he now weighs 140 pounds. Spanish words with the same meaning as decreased by: disminuda por Dependent events (See Independent events.) Spanish words with the same meaning as dependent events: eventos dependientes The diameter is a segment in a circle that goes through the center of the circle and meets the circumference at each end. (See circle.) Spanish word with the same meaning as diameter: dimetro 114 Appendix: CAHSEE Mathematics Vocabulary Appendix Equivalent expressions are numerical expressions that have the same value, or, if the expression contains variables, result in the same values for every value of the variable. 2 1 4 because all or 25% or For example, is equivalent to 0.25 or 8 4 16 these expressions are the same number value. Two algebraic expressions are equivalent if they always result in the same number value when the same numbers are substituted for the variable(s). For example, "5(x + y - 2)" is equivalent to "5x + 5y - 10." To see this, suppose 3 is put in for x and 4 is put in for y. Then 5(x + y - 2) = 5(3 + 4 - 2) = 5(5) = 25 And 5x + 5y - 10 = 5(3) + 5(4) - 10 = 15 + 20 - 10 = 25 In fact, the distributive property tells us that these two expressions give the same number as output, no matter what values of x and y are put in. Sometimes on multiple-choice tests, you can quickly get an idea whether two expressions are equivalent by checking the values of the expressions for a few specific numbers. This tactic is especially useful for finding out when expressions are not equivalent. If you put the same numbers in for the variables in two expressions, but different numbers are output, then you know the two expressions are not equivalent. For example, suppose on a multiple-choice test the question is "(x + y)2 is equivalent to:" and one of the possible answers is "x 2 + y 2." You could check to see whether these expressions are equivalent by trying 3 for x and 4 for y : Then (x + y)2 = (3 + 4)2 = 72 = 49. But x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25. Because the two expressions give different output numbers for the same input numbers, they are not equivalent. Equations or inequalities are equivalent if they have exactly the same solution set. For example, 4(x + 5) 3(x + 2) = 14 and 4x + 20 - 6x - 6 = 14 are equivalent because both equations are true if and only if x = 0. Spanish words with the same meaning as equivalent equations: ecuaciones equivalentes Expression refers to a number, a variable, or a combination of variables, numbers and symbols. 16x2 and 3x + 4y and 25t and 83/2 are all expressions. Spanish word with the same meaning as expression: expresin 115 APPENDIX: CAHSEE MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY AND ANSWER KEY Appendix The hypotenuse in a right triangle is the side opposite the right angle. The Pythagorean theorem for right triangles is sometimes given as "a2 b 2 c 2." In this formula, the a2 and b2 are the squares of the legs and the c 2 refers to the length of the hypotenuse squared. c a b Hypotenuse and right angle Spanish word with the same meaning as hypotenuse: hipotenusa Independent events, dependent events: These terms are used when figuring probabilities. In probability, an event is a particular happening that may or may not occur. Some examples of events are: "A fair coin will come up heads on the next flip," and "Rain will fall in Oakland tomorrow," and "Trudy Trimble will win next week's California lottery." One event is said to be independent of another if the first event can occur with absolutely no effect on the probability of the second event's happening. For example, suppose you are going to flip a fair coin two times and on the first flip it comes up heads. On the second flip, the probability of the coin coming up heads is still 50%. Each flip of the coin is independent of all other flips. But some events are dependent; that is, the probability of one event depends on whether the other event occurs. For example, suppose you are randomly choosing two marbles, one after another, from a bag that contains three blue marbles and three red marbles. On your first draw, you have a 50% chance of drawing a blue marble. But on your second draw, the probability of drawing a blue marble depends on which color you pulled out on the first draw. The probability of getting a blue marble on your second draw is dependent upon the result of the first draw. Spanish words with the same meaning as independent events, dependent events: eventos independientes, eventos dependientes Integers are the set of whole numbers and their opposites: { . . . 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .} Spanish word with the same meaning as integers: enteros 116 Appendix: CAHSEE Mathematics Vocabulary Appendix To find the mean of a set of data, first find the sum of the numbers in the data set and then divide the sum by how many numbers there are in the set. Example: Using the set of data as follows: {23, 12, 6, 4, 5, 12, 2, 11, 12, 5, 1, 8, 3}, the sum of the numbers is 104. There are 13 numbers in this set and 104 divided by 13 is 8. Therefore, the mean is 8. Spanish word with the same meaning as mean: media The median is the middle data item, where the data are arranged from least to greatest. For a data set with an even number of data items, you add the two middle data values and divide by two to find the median. Example: Using this set of data from the preceding example, {23, 12, 6, 4, 5, 12, 2, 11, 12, 5, 1, 8, 3}, first arrange the data in order from least to greatest: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 12, 12, 23}. The median is 6, because it is the middle number. Spanish word with the same meaning as median: mediana Parallel: straight lines or planes that never intersect. Parallel lines Lines not parallel Spanish word with the same meaning as parallel: paralelo(a) 117 APPENDIX: CAHSEE MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY AND ANSWER KEY Appendix A parallelogram is a four-sided geometric figure, with each pair of opposite sides being parallel. Parallelograms Not parallelograms (These figures are actually trapezoids.) Spanish word with the same meaning as parallelogram: paralelograma The perimeter is the distance around any closed, geometric, two-dimensional shape. Spanish word with the same meaning as perimeter: permetro A pie chart (or circle graph) is a way of displaying numerical data by dividing a circle into sectors. Each sector represents a category of the data and the size of each sector represents the relative size of that category compared to the whole. The parts are usually identified as percents of the whole. Here is a way of showing the breakfast data for Mrs. Garcia's class in a circle graph. eggs 24% cold cereal 44% hot cereal 32% Spanish words with the same meaning as circle graph: grfica circular 118 Appendix: CAHSEE Mathematics Vocabulary Appendix A prime number is a number that has exactly two factors: itself and 1. The smallest prime is 2, because only 2 1 = 2; 7 is a prime number, because only 7 1 = 7; 9 is not a prime number because 9 has three different factors: 1, 3, and 9. Spanish word(s) with the same meaning as prime: primo (nmero primo) The probability of an event's happening is a number from 0 to 1, which measures the chance of that event happening. The probability of most events is a value between 0 (impossible) and 1 (certain). A probability can be written as a fraction, as a decimal or as a percentage. Spanish word with the same meaning as probability: probabilidad The radius of a circle is the segment that begins at the center of the circle and ends at the circumference. Its length is half the diameter. (See circle.) Spanish word with the same meaning as radius: radio To choose randomly from a set means that each item of a set has an equal chance of being chosen. Five marbles of the same shape and size are put in a bag. There is a blue, a red, a white, a black, and a yellow marble in the bag. If you reach into the bag without looking, what is the probability of pulling out a red marble? Since you are not looking and each of the five marbles feels the same, there is an equal chance of choosing any one of the five marbles. The 1 answer is one out of five or . 5 Spanish word with the same meaning as randomly: aleatoriamente Scatterplot is a two-dimensional graph in which each point stands for two related items. For examples of scatterplots, see correlation. Spanish word with the same meaning as scatterplot: dispersograma Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers as a product of a power of 10 and a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10. Scientific notation gives us a way of writing very large numbers or very small numbers. Scientific notation uses powers of 10 to move the decimal point to the right or left. For example 1.5 106 = 1,500,000 and 1.5 106 = 0.0000015 In scientific notation, 8,906,000 is 8.906 106 and 0.0000023 is 2.3 106. Spanish words with the same meaning as scientific notation: notacin cientfica 119 APPENDIX: CAHSEE MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY AND ANSWER KEY Appendix Simple interest: When you have a savings account, the bank pays you for the use of your money. This payment is called interest. When the term simple interest is used, it means that the interest is calculated by finding the product of the original amount of money, the interest rate, and the time the money is in the bank. For example, suppose you put $200 in a bank that pays 8% per year for 1 year. Then the simple interest is $200.00 0.08 1 = $48. Spanish words with the same meaning as simple interest: inters simple Slope of a line on a graph is the ratio of the change in y-values to the change in x-values between any two points on the line. Spanish word with the same meaning as slope: pendiente The square of a number is the product of a number multiplied by itself. The square of 4 is 16 because 4 i 4 is 16. To square 13 means to multiply 13 13, which is 169. The symbol is the exponent 2. 42 = 16 and 132 = 169. Spanish word with the same meaning as square: cuadrado Square root is the opposite, or undoing, of squaring a number. Because 42 = 16, then the square root of 16 is 4. Because 132 = 169, then the square root of 169 is 13. The symbol for square root is , so 9 is 3, because 32 = 9. Spanish words with the same meaning as square root: raz cuadrada The surface area of a solid is the sum of the areas of all the faces of the solid. If the solid is curved like a cylinder or cone, the surface area can be found by unfolding the surface to make it flat and finding the area of the flat figure. Spanish words with the same meaning as surface area: rea de superficie A trapezoid is a geometric figure with four sides where exactly two of the sides are parallel. (see parallelogram) Spanish word with the same meaning as trapezoid: trapecio 120 Appendix: CAHSEE Mathematics Vocabulary Appendix The volume of a figure such as a rectangular solid, cylinder, cone, or sphere is a measure of the amount of space inside the figure. Volume is measured in cubic units. For an example, see the example for standard 7MG2.3 on page 78. Spanish word with the same meaning as volume: volumen The x-intercept is the value of x in an ordered pair that describes where the graph of the line intersects the x-axis. When an x-intercept is written as an ordered pair, a "0" will always be in the second spot because the y-value must be the 0 there. For example, an x-intercept of "5" has the coordinates (5, 0). Spanish words with the same meaning as x-intercept: intercepcin x The y -intercept is the value of y in an ordered pair that describes where the graph of the line intersects the y-axis. When a y-intercept is written as an ordered pair, a "0" will always be in the first spot because the x-value must be 0 there. For example, a y-intercept of "5" has the coordinates (0, 5). Spanish words with the same meaning as y-intercept: intercepcin y 121 APPENDIX: CAHSEE ANSWER KEY ANSWER KEY TO THE PRACTICE TEST Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Standard 7NS2.5 7NS2.4 7NS1.2 7NS1.6 7NS2.1 7NS2.2 7NS1.7 7NS1.3 7NS2.3 7NS1.2 7NS1.1 7PS1.1 6PS3.3 6PS2.5 6PS3.1 6PS1.1 6PS2.5 6PS3.5 7PS1.2 7AF1.1 7AF3.3 7AF2.2 7AF3.4 7AF4.2 7AF4.1 7AF1.2 7AF3.3 7AF3.1 7AF4.2 7AF2.1 7AF1.5 7MG1.2 7MG1.3 7MG1.3 7MG2.2 7MG2.4 7MG2.3 7MG3.3 7MG3.2 7MG2.1 7MG1.1 7MG3.4 7MG2.2 1A10.0 1A6.0 1A8.0 1A9.0 1A15.0 1A3.0 1A4.0 1A7.0 1A5.0 1A2.0 Standard Appendix ~ ~ 7MR1.2 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 7MR2.4 7MR2.3 7MR2.1 7MR1.1 7MR3.3 Correct Answer D B C B C C A B D B B A B D A B B C D C A C A C C B C B D A B C C A C A D B A B A B D C D B B A A C A A D 123 APPENDIX: CAHSEE MATHEMATICS VOCABULARY AND ANSWER KEY Appendix ANSWER KEYS TO THE ADDITIONAL SAMPLE QUESTIONS Number Sense Answer Key to Sample Items Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Standard 7NS1.1 7NS1.2 7NS1.3 7NS1.6 7NS1.7 7NS2.3 7NS2.4 7NS1.7 7NS2.5 Correct Answer C C C C C A B C D Measurement and Geometry Answer Key to Sample Items Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Standard 7MG1.1 7MG1.2 7MG1.3 7MG2.1 7MG2.1 7MG2.2 7MG2.3 7MG3.2 7MG3.3 Correct Answer D D B D A B C B B Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability Answer Key to Sample Items Question Number 1 2 3 4 Standard 6PS2.5 6PS3.5 7PS1.1 7PS1.2 Correct Answer C C D B Mathematical Reasoning Answer Key to Sample Items Question Number 1 2 3 4 Standard 7MR1.1 7MR2.1 7MR2.3 7MR2.4 Standard 7AF4.2 7NS1.2 7PS1.2 7NS1.2 Correct Answer A C D C Algebra and Functions Answer Key to Sample Items Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Standard 7AF1.1 7AF1.5 7AF2.2 7AF2.2 7AF3.3 7AF4.1 7AF4.1 7AF4.2 Correct Answer D C B D B D A A Algebra 1 Answer Key to Sample Items Question Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Standard 1A2.0 1A3.0 1A4.0 1A5.0 1A6.0 1A8.0 1A9.0 1A15.0 Correct Answer C A A D A C B A 124 NOTES 71839-71839 PDF78 OSP 04 86811 R04-004 403-0005-04 10-04 529M 125 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2012 for the course MTH 141, 142, taught by Professor Mcallister during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Empire State.

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