lecture2 - Ray Optics Reflection, Refraction Snells law...

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Unformatted text preview: Ray Optics Reflection, Refraction Snells law Optical components Lenses LECTURE 2 FUNDAMENTALS Light EM wave UV, Visible range (380 750 nm), NIR Obeys Maxwells equations (Electric / Magnetic components) Properties (Intensity/Wavelength/Polarization/Phase) FUNDAMENTALS Optics study of light properties, its interaction with matter and devices to influence/detect it Geometrical optics, physical (wave) optics, light sources, nanophotonics Sinusoidal waves traveling in +z Direction of fields (polarization): Amplitude: E (r , , z) , V/m Frequency: f , Hertz (Hz) Angular frequency: f , rad/s Phase: t z + ) z t cos( ) z , , r ( E x ) t ; z , , r ( E x Frequency: f , Hz Angular frequency: =2 f , rad/s Period: T = 1/f = 2 / , s Speed of light in vacuum: c = 2.9979 10 8 m/s ~ 3 10 8 m/s Wavelength: = c/f, (f = c) , m of visible light: 0.4 - 0.65 m Take = 0.5 m, f ~ 6 10 14 Hz = 600 THz T= 1/f ~ 1.66 fs o o / 1 c Speed of light in vacuum = c Speed of light in material media = v = c/n where n is the index of refraction Sellmeier equation , (3.71), pp. 70 71 For visible and IR light, microwave, radio frequency and low frequency waves, n > 1 Dense materials have large indices Rarefied materials have small indices 2 2 oi i o 2 2 r r f m q N 1 ) ( n ) ( ) ( ) ( n ) ( n n o o / 1 c Air 1.000293 CO 2 1.00045 Ice 1.31 Water 1.333 Benzene 1.501 Diamond 2.417 Fused silica 1.458 Glass 1.45 to 1.8 GaAs, GaP 3.50 Table 3.2, p. 66 and Table 4.1, p.95 Figures 3.41 and 3.42, p. 72 Refractive index @ 589.3 nm Figure 3.42 Index of refraction vs wavelength and frequency for several important optical crystals Wave fronts and rays Uniform plane waves z Plane waves Planar wavefronts Ray z Spherical waves radiated by a point source Wave front: constant phase surface Ray: vector or direction normal to the wave front RAYS Rays are normal to wave fronts: Lens example RAYS PROPAGATION Basic laws Homogeneous medium:...
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2012 for the course ECE 414 taught by Professor Alenxendra during the Spring '11 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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lecture2 - Ray Optics Reflection, Refraction Snells law...

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