lecture13

lecture13 - LECTURE 13: ELEMENTS OF LASERS Principal...

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Principal components: 1. Gain medium 2. Pumping energy 3. High reflector 4. Output coupler 5. Laser beam LECTURE 13: ELEMENTS OF LASERS L ight A mplification by S timulated E mission of R adiation
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Three essential parts of a laser Active medium Solid, liquid, gas, SC Three-level, four-level Optical feedback (optical cavities) Pumping Optical pumping Electrical pumping Electrical discharge Current injection in semiconductors Pumping by chemical reaction Kinetic energy of charges particles LASER E 2 E 1  f N 2 N 1
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1917 - Albert Einstein: On the Quantum Theory of Radiation 1928 - Rudolph W. Landenburg: existence of stimulated emission and negative absorption 1939 - Valentin A. Fabrikant: stimulated emission for amplification of "short" waves LASERS: HISTORY Hughes 1947 - Willis E. Lamb and R. C. Retherford: stimulated emission in hydrogen spectra 1950 - Alfred Kastler (Nobel Prize for Physics 1966): method of optical pumping 1960 - Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories: first working laser
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1953 - Charles H. Townes, James P. Gordon, Herbert J. Zeiger: First microwave amplifier Before 1955 - Nikolay Basov, Aleksandr Prokhorov: independt work on quantum oscillator, continuous output systems by using more than two energy levels - the first maser (maintainable population inversion) 1955 - Nikolay Basov, Aleksandr Prokhorov: optical pumping of multilevel system is suggested (in future: main laser pumping method)
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lecture13 - LECTURE 13: ELEMENTS OF LASERS Principal...

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