BasicGenetics121_OLS

BasicGenetics121_OLS - Basic Genetics Genome: All the...

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Basic Genetics Genome: All the genetic information (DNA) in a cell (includes genes and non-gene regions) Chromosome(s): Cellular structure(s) of DNA Gene: A segment of DNA found on a chromosome (or plasmid) that codes for a protein or RNA molecule Genotype: A cell’s entire collection of genes Phenotype: A cell’s entire collection of proteins (the products of expressed genes) DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) 1. Long strands made up of 4 nucleotides Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) 2. Sugars ( d eoxyribose) and phosphates form the “backbones” of the D NA strands 3. Two DNA stands pair and twist into characteristic double helix structure 4. Nucleotides are paired within the helix 5. DNA pairing rules: A – T C – G DNA Replication: Flow of Genetic Information from One Generation of Cells to the Next Generation Information in DNA sequence (existing molecule) Information in DNA sequence (new molecule) 1. The order of nucleotides in DNA constitutes the cell’s genetic information 2. Genetic information, the chromosome(s), must be copied before cells divide to ensure all genetic information is present in all cells Process of DNA replication 1
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1. Enzymes gradually pull apart the two DNA strands of the double helix and each strand is precisely copied using the nucleotide pairing rules (A-T; G-C) Ex: A-G-C-G-C-A-T T-C-G-C-G-T-A 2. DNA polymerase enzymes do the copying and then proofread to check for and correct mistakes 3. All together, at least 30 enzymes and other proteins are involved 4. Speed of copying is approximately 750 nucleotides per second (1 million nucleotides copied in 1333 sec (22 min)) 5. Origin of replication: Specific place on a chromosome where DNA replication begins (this is
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BasicGenetics121_OLS - Basic Genetics Genome: All the...

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