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Unformatted text preview: UCSD Physics 10 Inertia, Forces, and Acceleration: The Legacy of Sir Isaac Newton Objects in Motion UCSD Physics 10 Position is a "Vector" Compare "A ball is 12 meters North of the Sun God" to "A ball is 10 meters from here" A vector has both a direction and a value, or "magnitude" Which of these descriptive properties are vectors? Position Mass Color Speed Used interchangeably in casual language, but not in physics Velocity Temperature Spring 2008 2 UCSD Physics 10 Speed vs. Velocity
Speed is the rate of motion (how fast) Speed = distance / time
"The satellite has a speed of 15,000 mi/hr" "But officer, my speed was only 56 miles per hour!" Velocity is speed plus directional information:
"The spacecraft is moving at 18 km/sec towards Jupiter" Spring 2008 3 UCSD Physics 10 Discussion Questions
See if you can come to a consensus on answers to these questions: 1. A yellow car is heading East at 100 km/h and a red car is going North at 100 km/h. Do they have the same speed? Do they have the same velocity? 2. A 16-lb bowling ball in a bowling alley in Del Mar heads due north at 10 m/s. At the same time, a purple 8-lb ball heads due north at 10 m/s in an alley in La Jolla. Do they have the same velocity?
Spring 2008 4 UCSD Physics 10 Approaching a Physics Question or Problem
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Extract relevant facts Draw a sketch, if needed Determine applicable reasoning Draw irrefutable conclusion Perform a "sanity check". Does your answer make sense? Spring 2008 5 UCSD Physics 10 Newton Says A ball sitting still will stay that way, unless acted upon by a force. Inertia Mass An object that is not subjected to any outside forces moves at constant velocity, covering equal distances in equal times, along a straight path, x(t) = x(0) + vt Newton's 1st Law This is not intuitively obvious.
Spring 2008 6 UCSD Physics 10 Sliding Book Demonstration
Why doesn't it keep on going, like the Energizer Bunny? When are there forces acting on the book, and what is responsible for them? When is the speed a maximum? When is the speed a minimum? How much force is acting on it after it stops? Spring 2008 7 UCSD Physics 10 Constant Velocity Motion No Forces If no external forces are acting, velocity is constant Position changes, at a steady (constant) rate
t=0 sec 1 sec x =1 m 2m 2 sec 3m 3 sec 4m 4 sec 5m 5 sec 6m 6 sec 7m v= 1 m/s 1 m/s 1 m/s 1 m/s 1 m/s 1 m/s to right How does determination of velocity depend on choice x=0 and t=0? Spring 2008 8 UCSD Physics 10 A Data Table
constant velocity Time 0 sec 1 sec 2 sec 3 sec Position 1 meter 2 meters 3 meters 4 meters Velocity = dist/time & direction 1 m/s to right 1 m/s to right 1 m/s to right Spring 2008 9 UCSD Physics 10 Acceleration If an object's velocity changes, it's accelerating. The change can be in the speed of motion, in the direction of motion, or both. Acceleration is a generic term velocity change includes "deceleration" Can you feel if you're moving with a constant velocity? Can you feel being accelerated? Why?
Spring 2008 10 UCSD Physics 10 Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity A constant acceleration means that the object's velocity is changing at a constant rate Example: if the acceleration is along the direction of motion, the speed grows by the same amount in each time interval (e.g., second) if the speed changes by 1 meter per second each second, the acceleration is (1 meter per second) per second, or 1 m/s 2. if v = 15 m/s at time t = 0, and a = 1 m/s2, then v = 16 m/s at t = 1 sec v = 17 m/s at t = 2 sec v = 20 m/s at t = 5 sec Spring 2008 11 UCSD Physics 10 Acceleration is a Vector too Direction of acceleration = direction in which velocity changes Accel. in same direction as velocity speed increases Accel. in direction opposite to velocity speed decreases Accel. at right angles to velocity direction changes Example: An unexpected shove from the side as you run straight down a hallway might send you careening into the wall. Lesson: you shouldn't be running indoors. Circular motion is produced by acceleration of v2/r (r is radius of curve) Spring 2008 12 UCSD Physics 10 Discussion Questions, cont.
3. A sprinter who is running a 200 meter race covers the second 100 meters in less time than it takes to cover the first 100 meters. Why? 4. When you let go of a superball, does it accelerate? In which direction? What about when it hits the floor? If you throw it upwards, does it accelerate then? Which direction? 5. If you are driving East and apply the brakes to stop your car, in what direction are you accelerating? Spring 2008 13 UCSD Physics 10 Forces Cause Acceleration Acceleration is proportional to the applied force: The larger the force, the more an object will accelerate, in the direction of the applied force. Mass is inertia, i.e., reluctance to accelerate, so for the same force, more massive objects experience smaller acceleration than less massive ones. Shorthand: Force = mass acceleration, or F = ma
Spring 2008 Newton's 2nd Law 14 UCSD Physics 10
0.4 sec 0.5 sec 0.6 sec 0.7 sec -1.0 m -2.0 m -3.0 m -4.0 m -5.0 m -6.0 m A Ball in Free Fall Is the ball's direction of velocity constant? Does it travel equal distances in equal times? Is the ball accelerating? What is the direction of the acceleration vector? What is the direction of the force (F = ma)? What's responsible for the force on the ball? 0.8 sec 0.9 sec 1.0 sec 1.1 sec -7.0 m 1.2 sec Spring 2008 15 UCSD Physics 10 Questions on Newton's Second Law
6. If identical forces act on two objects, where object A is twice as massive as object B, how do their accelerations compare? 7. If I double the mass of an object, by what factor must I change the applied force to maintain a certain acceleration? 8. If one force pulls an object to the East, while a second force of equal magnitude pulls it to the West, what is the object's acceleration? Spring 2008 16 UCSD Physics 10 Quantitative exercises, real numbers
If you see an object with a mass of 1 kg increase its speed by 1m/s in each second, what force is acting on it?
Is it accelerating? Yes! How much is it accelerating? Velocity changing by 1m/s per sec is acceleration of 1 m/s/s =1 m/s 2 What force is acting on it? F = mass acceleration = 1 kg 1 m/s2 = 1 kg m/s2 = 1 Newton Spring 2008 17 UCSD Physics 10 Another numerical example
On planet Splat, the acceleration due to gravity is 40.0 m/s2. What would a rock's velocity be 3 sec after you dropped it on Splat? (Initially at rest.) Velocity increases by 40 m/s in each second. Starts from rest, i.e. v = 0 at t = 0 So, v(0 s) = 0 m/s, v(1 s) = 40 m/s, v(2 s) = 80 m/s, v(3 s) = 120 m/s.
Spring 2008 18 UCSD Physics 10 Summary Mass is a property of objects, producing a reluctance to accelerate, called inertia Velocity refers to both speed and direction Acceleration means a change in velocity (either magnitude, or direction or both) If an object is accelerating, it is being acted upon by a force, and F = ma. No exceptions. Spring 2008 19 UCSD Physics 10 Assignments HW 2: due Friday (4/18): Hewitt 11.E.16, 11.E.20, 11.E.32, 11.P.5, 2.E.6, 2.E.11, 2.E.14, 2.E.36, 2.E.38, 3.E.4, 3.E.5, 3.E.6, 3.E.19 turn in at lecture, or in box outside SERF 336 by 3PM Read Hewitt Chapters 2, 3, 4 suggested order/skipping detailed on website Spring 2008 20 ...
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