Unformatted text preview: UCSD Physics 10 The Electric Force
Electric Charge Electric Fields Electron Beams UCSD Physics 10 Electric Charge Recall that fundamental particles carry something called electric charge protons have exactly one unit of positive charge electrons have exactly one unit of negative charge Electromagnetic force is one of the basic interactions in nature like charges experience repulsive force opposite charges attracted to each other (like gravity) Electrical current is flow of charge (electrons) UCSD Physics 10 Charge Balance Neutral atoms are made of equal quantities of positive and negative charges Neutral carbon has 6 protons, 6 electrons, (& neutrons) Electrons can be stripped off of atoms Electrons occupy the vulnerable outskirts of atoms Usually charge flows in such a way as to maintain neutrality Excess positive charge attracts excess negative charge Your body has 5 1028 positive charges and 5 1028 negative charges, balanced within millions or billions UCSD Physics 10 Charge Separation Can separate charges by rubbing: feet on carpet atmosphere across ground silk on glass balloon on hair! Insulators keep charges where they are (no flow) Conductors distribute charge equally on surface charge is free to "move about the cabin" why do the charges collect on the surface? UCSD Physics 10 Induced Charge Charge can also be coaxed to redistribute itself within an object
+ + + + + + Charged rod approaches sphere + charge attracted to charge in rod charge repelled by rod UCSD Physics 10 Static Electricity Rubbing action redistributes charge (unbalanced) If enough charge builds up, we get discharge Air spark is actually due to "breakdown" of air neutral air molecules separate into ions (electrons are stripped away) current can then flow through the "plasma-field" air In essence, air becomes a "wire" for a short bit this happens at 3 million volts per meter 1 cm spark then at 30,000 volts typical finger-spark may involve a few billion electrons hold onto key to reduce pain of spark UCSD Physics 10 Lightning Lightning is an unbelievably huge discharge Clouds get charged through air friction 1 kilometer strike means 3 billion volts! Main path forms temporary "wire" along which charge equalizes often bounces a few times before equal Thunder is bang produced by the extreme pressure variations induced by the formation and collapse of the plasma conduit www.stormchasing.nl/lightning.html UCSD Physics 10 Lightning Rods Perform two functions provide safe conduit for lightning away from house diffuse situation via "coronal discharge"
Charges are attracted to tip of rod, and "electric field" is highly concentrated there. Charges "leak" away, diffusing charge in what is sometimes called "St. Elmo's Fire", or "coronal discharge" UCSD Physics 10 "Electrostatic" Force Two charges, Q1 and Q2, separated by distance r exert a force on each other: F = (kQ1Q2) / r2 k is a constant (9 109), Q is in Coulombs, r in meters One unit of charge (proton) has Q = 1.6 10-19 Coulombs Looks a lot like Newton's gravitation in form Electron and proton attract each other 1040 times stronger electrically than gravitationally! Good thing charge is usually balanced! UCSD Physics 10 Coulomb Law Illustrated Like charges repel Unlike charges attract
r + + If charges are of same magnitude (and same separation), all the forces will be the same magnitude, with different directions. UCSD Physics 10 Coulomb Force Law, Qualitatively Double one of the charges force doubles Change sign of one of the charges force changes direction Change sign of both charges force stays the same Double the distance between charges force four times weaker Double both charges force four times stronger UCSD Physics 10 Electric Force a lot like Gravity Same 1/r2 dependence; charge takes place of mass. Does this mean electricity is product of geometry, just like gravity (general relativity)? No, because gravity as geometry accounts for the fact that all masses accelerate the same. This depends on applied force being proportional to inertial mass (F = ma). For charged particles, force is proportional to charge, not inertial mass. Different charge-to-mass ratios lead to different accelerations. Proton has 1/2000 charge-to-mass of electron proton sluggish UCSD Physics 10 Electric Field Can think of electric force as establishing "field" telling particles which way to move and how fast
Electric "field lines" tell a positive charge which way to move. For example, a positive charge itself has field lines pointing away from it, because this is how a positively-charged "test-particle" would respond if placed in the vicinity (repulsive force).
Run Away! + + UCSD Physics 10 Example Electric Fields Around Charges UCSD Physics 10 Electric Fields in Circuits Point away from positive terminal, towards negative Channeled by conductor (wire) Electrons flow opposite field lines (neg. charge)
E E electrons & direction of motion
E Electric field direction E UCSD Physics 10 Electron Beams; Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Televisions, Oscilloscopes, Monitors, etc. use an electron beam steered by electric fields to light up the (phosphorescent) screen at specified points
+ + + + + + + cathode emitter E-field electron beam
- - - - - - - metal plates UCSD Physics 10 Assignments Selected readings from Hewitt Chaps. 23, 24, 25, 26 (specific pages listed on assignments page) HW 6 due 5/23: 22.E.1, 22.E.5, 22.E.11, 22.E.16, 22.E.20, 22.E.30, 22.E.33, 22.P.1, 23.E.3, 26.E.7, 26.E.9, 26.E.11 ...
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