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Unformatted text preview: UCSD Physics 10 The Role of Science in Our Society
Economics, Education, Impact on Thought UCSD Physics 10 The Impact of Science Basic research in science tends to focus on the fundamental properties of the natural world As opposed to applied research, product development Basic research has many spinoff advantages Basic research develops knowledge base Research funding builds bridges to applications New tools move into the economy (WWW) People! UCSD Physics 10 Justification of Science Research Activity Improvements in quality of life Medical care, technology, creature comforts & gadgets Satisfies our shared natural curiosity Only valid if scientists communicate effectively! National Security Avoid technological surprises, etc. Technology "spinoff" fuels the new economy Computers, WWW Creation of new knowledge = the best education UCSD Physics 10 Basic Research and Applied Science/Technology The Traditional View
Long term Corporate funding Basic Research Development Short term Commercial Products Applied Federal funding Basic UCSD Physics 10 Technological evolution/revolution In 1947, Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain made the first transistor (called that only starting 1948) 1951 before manufacturable transistor designed 1954 before first transistor radio 1967 first small calculators; 1971 first microprocessor 1999 Pentium III with 10 million transistors, 1-inch sq. long time between science breakthrough and product UCSD Physics 10 Science Spending in the G-7 World U.S. on top, more defense spending than most amounts to a few percent of gross-domestic-product UCSD Physics 10 Research/Development Dollars Compared (G-8) U.S. no longer on top in this representation UCSD Physics 10 Present U.S. Science Funding Policy Foster science driven by scientists, as opposed to "directed" research Rigorous system of peer review (very competitive) Support projects, not people or institutions Diversity of federal agencies provide funding National Science Foundation National Institutes of Health Department of Energy Department of Defense (NSF) (NIH) (DOE) (DOD) No "Dept. of Science" or "Dept. of Technology" UCSD Physics 10 International Research $$ by Source & Performer Industry-dominated, with significant government financial backing UCSD Physics 10 U.S. R&D Expenditures by source of funds, performing sector, and character of work Basic research government funded, done at universities UCSD Physics 10 U.S. Academic R&D Expenditures UCSD Physics 10 The University Research Environment Most U.S. basic research carried out at universities 98% of the science faculty primarily research-oriented teaching is often less emphasized Researchers pull in federal money through grants over $700 million per year into UCSD (including medical) UCSD is one of the nation's leading research institutions! bulk in medicine, science, and engineering money funds research, but University also takes a cut University cut (called overhead) pays for electricity, maintenance, staff, copy machines, etc. research subsidizes your education UCSD Physics 10 A Typical University Research Grant Typical "single-investigator" physics research grant (1 yr): Graduate student + benefits/tuition Travel funds Summer salary for Prof. Computing costs Equipment 40K$ 5K$ 10K$ 5K$ 40K$ 100K$/yr 30K$ ~130K$/yr total "overhead" at 50% (not eqpt) This is a "small-scale" research project. They also come in X-L size. UCSD Physics 10 Science Education in the U.S. US schoolchildren have skills consistent with international average in science and mathematics while in elementary school By the time they leave high school, performance in advanced math has fallen to the bottom of all countries tested in 1995 (TIMSS) see nces.ed.gov/timss/ for more info UCSD Physics 10 Public understanding of science terms/concepts, 1999 Look how far ahead you guys are! UCSD Physics 10 Public perception of astrology as scientific UCSD Physics 10 Where the U.S. prevails in education: While pre-college science/math education faces considerable challenges, U.S. higher education in technical fields is highly sought after worldwide though this shows disturbing downward trend of late... The fact that research is done within U.S. Universities (like this one!) is likely the reason Provides opportunities to wrestle with real world challenges using/developing cutting-edge tools and techniques. seek out these opportunities! Gives students solid experience in solving problems you get out what you put in! UCSD Physics 10 Science/Eng. PhDs awarded in U.S. per year About 40% foreign, many of whom stay in the U.S. UCSD Physics 10 R&D labor force as fraction of total labor U.S. is among the best here, at just less than 1% UCSD Physics 10 People are the Key Educated individuals constitute a vital pathway for technology transfer between academia and industry no better way to master a technology than to employ that technology's master An increasingly educated and versatile workforce is (in my own view) essential to continued economic viability alternative is stagnation, or playing "follow the leader" UCSD Physics 10 Science and its Impact on Human Thought Science offers fresh, often surprising perspectives the Universe is describable by mathematics space and time are wrapped up inextricably together uncertainty principle: impossible to know everything the act of looking changes the nature of nature we may have more dimensions than meets the eye parallel universes? extra-solar planets! our place in the cosmos (speck on speck) our very brief appearance on this planet UCSD Physics 10 Impacts of Science These often bizarre, unexpected ideas permeate our culture: uncertainty, relativity, parallel universes, evolution, possibility of life elsewhere... Often misused, but who cares? It's still an impact. especially in the hands of lawyers and film-makers Impact on religion science discoveries don't adhere to our pre-conceptions Science education impacts world politics harder to pull the wool over our eyes; can't have a leader sweep educated nation into emotional fervor UCSD Physics 10 References, Announcements References www.pbs.org/transistor/ for the story of the transistor as a prime example http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/ NSF Indicators of Science & Engineering: lecture graphs from this source Assignments Last Q/O due Fri. 6/06, by midnight still opportunity for late submission through time of the final exam Announcements Final Exam Fri. June 13, 3:006:00, WLH 2005 bring light-red half-sheet scantron, #2 pencil, calculator Study guide posted online Study sessions in Solis 104: Wed. 810 PM, Thu. 810 PM ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2012 for the course PHYSICS 104 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '10