ch18_print - Electric Forces and Electric Fields Electric...

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Electric Forces and Electric Fields 1 – Properties of Electric Charges Electric charge is an intrinsic property of matter, inherent in its atomic structure. electron charge: q = - e proton charge: q = + e with elementary charge: e = 1 . 60 · 10 - 19 Coulomb The earliest studies of electricity were conducted by the Greeks ( 570 B.C. Thales of Milet): amber (greek: electron ) attracts small objects after being rubbed with wool Experiments demonstrate that there are two kinds of electric charges: positive and negative (Benjamin Franklin [1706 – 1790]) Dr.Wackeroth Spring 2005 PHY102A Electric Forces and Electric Fields like charges repel one another and unlike charges attract one another objects become charged through contact with another already charged object or by induction (no contact). When charging an object negative charge is transferred from one object to the other. electric charge is conserved: the sum of all electric charges in the universe does not change when an electrically charged object is created the same amount of negative and positive charge is produced Dr.Wackeroth Spring 2005 PHY102A
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Electric Forces and Electric Fields 2 – Conductors and Insulators Substances are classified in terms of their ability to con- duct electric charge: Conductors: materials in which electric charges move freely Examples: copper, aluminum, in general all metals Insulators: materials in which electric charges do not move freely Examples: rubber, glass Special case: semiconductors:
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