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Unformatted text preview: Physics 211 "Physics" with Calculus Concurrent minimal requirement: Math 140 "First Semester Calculus" Text: Halliday Resnick Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, Extended, 9th Edition Physics 211
Introduction to Mechanics Course Overview Requirements Expectations Chapter 1 Course Requirements 3 exams Final Wiley Plus HW, Quizzes Laboratory 40% 20% 20% 20% Expectations
Prepare for each class: 1. Read text assignment ahead of time 2. Prepare assignments ahead of time 3. Make use of all resources available: Text, website of text Course Webpage http://hadron2.bk.psu.edu class notes practice and homework problems office hours Wed 4:30 or by appt. email: firstname.lastname@example.org The Major Player Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Develops Calculus to explain the theory of Mechanics and Gravitation F = ma From his general statements on motion he develops calculus and shows that 1) Planets follow elliptical motion 2) They sweep out equal areas in equal time (conservation of angular momentum) GmM ^ F= r 2 r 3) From universal gravity he derives Kepler's 3rd law Johannes Kepler 1571 1630 Astronomer, Physicist, Natural Philosopher etc... ? KEPLER'S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION
1. All planets move in ellipses with the Sun at one of the focus 2. The radius vector drawn from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times 3. The square of the period of orbit is proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of the elliptical orbit r T
3 2 F = ma GmM ^ F= r 2 r 4. !!! All of this is a consequence of Newtown's 2nd Law Once he knew the shape he describe how the planet move on its orbit
Kepler's Second Law of Planetary Motion A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time. Kinematics in 1, 2 (vectors) & 3 Dim. So what do we have to master to understand these concepts Course Overview Dynamics-Newton's Laws in 1, 2 (vectors) & 3 Dim. Work Energy Theorem KE, PE Conservation of Energy Momentum of 1 and 2 particle systems Kinematics and Dynamics of Extended Objects Rotational Motion of extended objects, Notion of Torques Equilibrium Oscillatory Motion Newton's Theory of Gravitation Science Its Methods Theory and Measurement A scientific theory by definition is falsifiable; it is setup to be replaced by a theory which supplants it by being 1) More general in scope 2) Able to explain specific cases that predate that theory 3) All of this is based upon experimental measurement! This is why have lab: we will practice this use of data to verify or disprove the theoretical statements. Measurement need a standard language and precision
s Fundamental Measure "Base Units" Length meters - [m] Mass kilograms [kg] Time seconds [s] s s Other units in terms of Standards e.g. F = ma = [kg m / s2 ] Systems SI System "Standard International" CGS (cm,grams,seconds) British (American) PSU - Berks Campus 02/13/12 1 Dimensional Analysis/Conversion of Units
s Dimensional Analysis Treat Dimensions like algebraic quantities s Unit Conversion follows Dimensional Analysis PSU - Berks Campus 02/13/12 1 Significant Figures
s s Rule: No more significant figures than the least number in the problem e.g. Area of circle = 3 .1 4 1 5 9 r=2.1 Area= r2 =6.597340 Area 6.6
s Exceptions: +,-,x, any math operation allows gain or loss of significant figures
02/13/12 PSU - Berks Campus 1 One Parsec (pc) The distance from which Earth would appear to be one arcsecond from the Sun. S = r 1 pc = 1Au 1
'' Example Problem 57 conversions S = R PSU - Berks Campus 02/13/12 1 PSU - Berks Campus 02/13/12 1 ...
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