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Bio171-F10-Lec 3 - Biology 171 Monday Lecture 3...

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Lecture 3: Organism/Environment Interactions Biology 171 Monday, September 13, 2010 Biological classification (concluded) Physiology & Respiration Scaling Effects of Respiration Role of Hemoglobin Respiration in Water vs. Air Comparative Respiration: Fishes, Mammals, Birds Insects Today’s Topics: Announcements This week in Discussion: What is Life? Text Reading Lecture 3 : 4 th ed: Chapters 41 (811-814), 44 (861-877) 3 rd ed: Chapters 41 (921-926), 44 (978-997) Lecture 4: 4 th ed: Chapter 50 (995-1012) 3 rd ed: Chapter 50(1127-1146) 1
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In terms of complexity, the primary distinction among living organisms separates Prokaryotes from Eukaryotes 2
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Fig. 1.6 3
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Fig. 1.6 4
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Fig. 7.1 5
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Linnaeus grouped organisms together based on apparent similarity 6
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Phylogeny* is the study of the connections between all groups of organisms as understood by ancestor/descendant relationships. *Greek for “tribe”and “origins” Phylogeneticists express the relationships among groups of organisms through tree-like diagrams which are inferred genealogies of lineages and species. The data they use to construct these inferred genealogies are obtained from the: Fossil record Morphologies of living organisms Genomes of living organisms 7
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Does it matter if we classify biodiversity according to Linnean or Phylogenetic systems? Why should this be important? 8
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Phylogenetic perspective of the earth’s biodiversity (based on gene sequences). Three major branches (Domains), 2 of them prokaryotic. Fig. 1.5 9
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A living entity…. acquires energy and material from its surroundings 10
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Organismal Ecology Physiology : mechanical, physical and biochemical functions of living organisms. Performing these functions requires energy obtained from food by respiration : cellular respiration and physiological respiration. 11 50.1
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Plants Light Energy Chemical Energy Work & Heat Respiration unlocks the energy stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules and puts it to work physiologically 12
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Glucose: an energy-rich organic molecule produced by plants Energy-rich molecules such as glucose cannot be directly used for life processes The energy must be converted into a readily usable chemical form (ATP) by the process of Cellular Respiration . Occurs in a highly regulated form in mitochondria. Requires O 2 Adenosine Triphosphate ATP) powers almost all cellular functions 13
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