Bio171-F10-Lec 8 - Biology 171 Friday Lecture 8 Species...

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Biology 171 Friday, September 24, 2010 Announcements Text Reading: Lecture 8 : 4 th : Chapter 53 (1063-1066), Ch. 39(776-781) 3 rd : Chapter 53 (1202-1205), Ch. 39 (882-888) Lecture 9: 4 th : Chapter 53 (1066-1070), Ch. 31 (596-587) 3 rd : Ch. 53 (1205-9), Ch 28 (572-3), Ch 31 (672-3) Competitive Exclusion Connell’s Barnacle Field Study Niche Differentiation Herbivory; Importance of Insects Predation Predator-Prey Population Cycling Next Week’s Discussion: Competition Exam I – Wed. Sep. 29 1
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According to Hutchinson, a species’ realized niche is often smaller than its fundamental niche , and a species may frequently be absent from portions of its fundamental niche because of competition with other species. 13
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Classic Barnacle experiments by Joe Connell tested the factors controlling Competitive Exclusion and Resource Partitioning on rocky North Atlantic shores Semibalanus is the big barnacle, Chthamalus is much smaller 14
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Barnacles feed only while submerged. The higher up the shore a barnacle is - the less it can feed and grow The barnacle life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage that drifts for a few weeks then attaches to rocks and metamorphoses into a juvenile. 15
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Note that Semibalanus larvae settle throughout most of the vertical range of Chthamalus However, Chthamalus is much better at resisting prolonged atmospheric exposure than Semibalanus . Upper distributional limit for Semibalanus is set by mass mortality due to desiccation. 16
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Where both species can grow, Semibalanus is by far the stronger competitor and literally pushes Chthamalus aside. 17
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Competitive Exclusion & Resource Partitioning in Barnacles Control Population No manipulation 18 Fig. 53.6 Fig. 53.6 Experimental Population Remove Semibalanus
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Treatment Population Connell physically removed all Semibalanus individuals for a number of larval recruitment cycles. Question: What would happen to the distribution of Chthamalus ? Competitive Exclusion & Resource Partitioning in Barnacles 19
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In intertidal zones, upper distributional limits are typically set by abiotic factors (desiccation, temperature etc.) and lower limits are typically set by biotic factors (competition, predation etc.). 20
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Bio171-F10-Lec 8 - Biology 171 Friday Lecture 8 Species...

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